SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ISLAM AND HINDUISM
In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Mercyful.
All prices are due to Allah, and as such we praise Him.
And peace and Blessing of Almighty Allah be upon His
Last and Final Massenger, Proper Muhammad (pbuh), and
upon all His righeous servants untill the Last Day.
We shall seek to find similarities or common ground between two major religions of the world: Hinduism and Islam. The approach adopted in this work is based on the following verse of the Glorious Qur’an:
Surah Ali Imran Chapter 3 Verse 64:
Say “O People Of the Book!
Come to common terms
As between us and you:
That we worship none but Allah;
That we associate no partners with Him;
That we erect not, From among ourselves,
Lords and patrons other than Allah.”
If then they turn back,
Say ye: “Bear witness That we (at least)
Are Muslims (bowing To Allah’s Will).’
(Al Qur’an 3:64)
CORRECT UNDERSTANDING OF A RELIGION
a. Don’t observe followers of a Religion. Refer to Authentic Sources of that Religion
Followers of major religions, whether it be Hinduism, Islam or Christianity, have divided themselves and their beliefs into various sects.
It is not appropriate for one to try to understand a religion by observing the followers of that religion. Most followers may themselves not be aware of the correct teachings of their religion. Thus, the best and the most appropriate method of understanding any religion is to understand the authentic sources of that religion, i.e. the sacred scriptures of that religion.
b. Authentic Sources of Islam.
Allah (swt), Almighty God, says in the Glorious Qur’an:
And hold fast, All together,
by the Rope Which Allah (stretches out for you),
and be not divided among yourselves. (Al Qur’an 3:103)
The “rope of Allah refers” to the Glorious Qur’an. Allah (swt) says that Muslims should not be divided and that the only unifying factor is the authentic source of the religion of Islam i.e. the Glorious Qur’an.
Allah (swt) also says in the Glorious Qur’an in several places including Al Qur’an 4:59:
O ye who believe!
Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger. (Al Qur’an 4:59)
To understand the Qur’an better we have to refer to the explanation of the Qur’an by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) on whom the Qur’an was revealed. Thus the best and the most appropriate method of understanding Islam is to understand the authentic sources of Islam which are the Glorious Qur’an, (the words of Almighty Allah) and the authentic Ahadith, (i.e. the sayings and traditions of Prophet Muhammad.
c. Authentic Sources of Hinduism
Similarly, the best and the most appropriate method of understanding Hinduism is to understand the authentic sources i.e. the sacred scriptures of Hinduism. The most sacred and authentic Scriptures of Hinduism are the Vedas, followed by the Upanishads, the Itihaas, Bhagvad Gita, Puranas, etc.
Let us understand these two major religions of the world, i.e. Islam and Hinduism, by studying and analyzing the authentic Scriptures of these two major religions of the world.
d. Emphasis on those Similarities, which are not commonly known.
In this work on ‘Similarities between Islam and Hinduism’, we shall not lay emphasis on those similarities which are known by almost all the followers of both the religions e.g. a person should always speak the truth, he should not lie, he should not steal, he should be kind, he should not be cruel, etc. Instead, we shall consider those similarities, which are not commonly known by all the followers and hence are known only to those who are familiar with the contents of their sacred Scriptures.
INTRODUCTION OF ISLAM
1. Definition of Islam
Islam is an Arabic word, which comes from the word ‘Salm’ which means peace
and from 'Silm', which means submitting your will to Allah – the Almighty God. In
short Islam means peace acquired by submitting your will to Allah (swt).
The word Islam is mentioned in several places in the Qur’an and the Hadith
including Surah Ali Imran, chapter 3, verse 19 and verse 85.
2. Definition of a Muslim
A Muslim is a person who submits his will to Allah – the Almighty God.
The word Muslim is mentioned several times in the Qur’an and Hadith including
Surah Ali Imran Chapter 3 Verse 64 and Surah Fussilat Chapter 41 Verse 33.
3. A misconception about Islam
Many people have a misconception that Islam is a new religion that was
formulated 1400 years ago, and that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the founder
of Islam. However, let me clarify that Islam is not the name of some unique
religion presented for the first time by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) who should, on
that account be called the founder of Islam.
The Qur’an states that Islam – the complete submission of man before his one
and only Unique Creator – is the one and only faith and way of life consistently
revealed by God to humankind from the very beginning. Noah, Solomon, David,
Abraham, Moses, Isaac and Jesus (peace be upon them all) – prophets who
appeared at different times and places – all propagated the same faith and
conveyed the same message of Tawheed (Oneness of God), Risaalat
(Prophethood) and Aakhirah (the Hereafter). These prophets of God were not
founders of different religions to be named after them. They were each reiterating
the message and faith of their predecessors.
However, Muhammad (pbuh) was the last Prophet of God. God revived through
him the same genuine faith which had been conveyed by all His Prophets. This
original message was earlier corrupted and split into various religions by people
of different ages, who indulged in interpolations and admixture. These alien
elements were eliminated by God, and Islam – in its pure and original form – was
transmitted to humankind through Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
Since there was to be no messenger after Muhammad (pbuh), the Book revealed
to him (i.e. the Glorious Qur’an) was preserved word for word so that it should be
a source of guidance for all times.
Thus the religion of all the prophets was ‘total submission to God’s will’ and one
word for that in the Arabic language is ‘Islam’. Abraham and Jesus (peace be
upon them) too were Muslims, as Allah testifies in Al-Qur'an 3:67 and 3:52
INTRODUCTION OF HINDUISM
1. Definition of a Hindu
a) The word ‘Hindu’ has geographical significance and was used originally to
refer to those people who lived beyond the river Sindhu or the region watered by
the river Indus.
b) Historians say that it was first used by the Persians who came to India through
the North Western passes of the Himalayas. The word ‘Hindu’ was also used by
c) This word ‘Hindu’ is nowhere mentioned in Indian Literature or Hindu
Scriptures before the advent of Muslims to India, according to the Encyclopedia
of Religions and Ethics (6:690)
Exact quote from encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics: "The word Hindu is itself a foreign one. The Hindus never used it in any Sanskrit writting, that is, those which were written before the Mohammedan invasion."
d) Jawaharlal Nehru, in his book ‘Discovery of India’, writes on pages. 74, "The word 'Hindu' does not occur at all in our (indian) ancient literature. The first reference to it in an Indian book is, I am toldin a Tantrik work of the eighth Century
C.E., where 'Hindu' means a people and not a follower of a particular religion. The use
of the word ‘Hindu’ in connection with a particular religion is of late occurrence".
In short the word ‘Hindu’ is a geographical definition or term which is used to
refer to people who live beyond the river Indus or in other words to those who live
2. Definition of Hinduism
a) Hinduism has been derived from the word Hindu. According to the New
Encyclopedia Britannica 20:581, Hinduism was a name given in English
language in the Nineteenth Century by the English people to the multiplicity of
the beliefs and faiths of the people of the Indus land. The British writers in 1830
gave the word Hinduism to be used as the common name for all the beliefs of the
people of India excluding the Muslims and converted Christians.
b) According to the Hindu Scholars, Hinduism is a misnomer and the religion
‘Hinduism’ should be either referred to as ‘Sanatana Dharma’, which means
'eternal religion', or as 'Vedic Dharma', meaning 'religion of the Vedas'. According to
Swami Vivekananda, the followers of this religion are referred to as 'Vendantists'.
ARTICLES OF FAITH (IMAAN) IN ISLAM & COMPARISON WITH TENETS PRESCRIBED BY HINDU SCRIPTURES
Almighty Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an
It is not righteousness
That ye turn your faces
Towards East or West;
But it is righteousness
To believe in Allah
And the Last Day,
And the Angels,
And the Book,
And the Messengers;
(Al Qur’an 2:177)
It is reported in Sahih Muslim:
“... A man came to the Prophet and said ‘O Messenger of Allah, what is Imaan (faith)? He (the prophet) said: ‘That you affirm your faith in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Meeting, His Messengers and that you believe in the Resurrection i.e. Hereafter and that you believe in Qadr (Divine Decree)'."
(Sahih Muslim Vol. 1, Book of Imaan, Chapter 2, Hadith 6)
Thus the six articles of faith of Islam are:
i) Belief in God (The first article of faith in Islam is ‘Tawheed’ i.e. belief in the one Unique Eternal Creator of all creation).
ii) His angels
iii) His books
iv) His messengers
v) The Hereafter i.e. Life after death and
vi) Qadr i.e. destiny
Let’s study what Hinduism says about these six articles.
Concept of God in Hinduism and in Islam
Let us examine the concept of God in these two major religions in light of their respective scriptures and study if there are similarities.
First we shall discuss the Concept of God in Hinduism.
a. COMMON CONCEPT OF GOD IN HINDUISM:
If you ask some persons who are Hindus that how many gods do they believe in, some may say three, some may say thirty-three, some may say a thousand, while some may say thirty-three crores i.e. 330 million. But if you ask this question to a learned Hindu who is well versed with the Hindu Scriptures, he will reply that the Hindus should actually believe and worship only one God.
b. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ISLAM AND HINDUISM IS THAT OF ’S
(Everything is ‘God’s’ – Everything is ‘God’)
The major difference between the Hindu and the Muslim is that while the common Hindu believes in the philosophy of Pantheism, i.e. “everything is God, the Tree is God, the Sun is God, the Moon is God, the Snake is God, the Monkey is God, the Human Being is God.”
Muslims believe that everything is God’s. G-O-D with an apostrophe’s’. Everything belongs to the one and only unique eternal God. The tree belongs to God, the sun belongs to God, the moon belongs to God, the snake belongs to God, monkey belongs to God, the human being belongs to God.
Thus the major difference between the Hindus and the Muslims is the apostrophe ‘s’. The Hindu says, “everything is GOD”. The Muslim says, “everything is God’s”, GOD with an Apostrophe ‘s’. If we can solve the difference of the Apostrophe ‘s’, the Hindus and the Muslims will be united.
The Glorious Qur’an says
“Come to common terms as between us and you”,
Which is the first term?
“that we worship none but Allah”
So let’s come to common terms by analyzing the scriptures of the Hindus and of the Muslims.
Upanishads are one of the sacred Scriptures of the Hindus.
i. Chandogya Upanishad Chapter 6 Section 2 verse 1
It is mentioned in the Chandogya Upanishad:
“He is one only without a second.”
(Chandogya Upanishad 6:2:1)
(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg. 447 & 448)
(Sacred Books of the East Volume 1, the Upanishads Part I Page 93)
ii. Shwetashvatara Upanishad Chapter 6 verse 9
It is mentioned in the Shwetashvatara Upanishad
“Nacasya kascij janita na cadhipah”
“Of Him there are neither parents nor Lord.”
(Shwetashvatara Upanishad 6:9)
(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg. 745)
(Sacred books of the East volume 15, the Upanishads Part II Page 263)
iii. Shwetashvatara Upanishad Chapter 4 verse 19
It is mentioned in Shwetashvatara Upanishad
“Na tasya pratima asti”
“There is no likeness of Him”.
(Shwetashvatara Upanishad 4:19)
(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pages 736 & 737 )
(and in Sacred books of the East Volume 15, the Upanishads part II, Page no. 253)
iv. Shwetashvatara Upanishad Chapter 4 verse 20
It is mentioned in Shwetashvatara Upanishad:
“na samdrse tisthati rupam asya, na caksusa pasyati kas canainam”.
“His form cannot be seen, no one sees Him with the eye”.
(Shwetashvatara Upanishad 4:20)
(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg. 737)
(And in Sacred books of the East Volume 15, the Upanishad part II, Page no. 253)
The most popular amongst all the Hindu Scriptures is the Bhagwad Geeta.
Bhagwad Geeta mentions
“Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires worship demigods” that is “Those who are materialistic, they worship demigods” i.e. others as deities besides the True God.
(Bhagwad Geeta 7:20)
It is mentioned in Bhagavad Gita:
“He who knows Me as the unborn, as the beginning-less, as the Supreme Lord of all the worlds...”
(Bhagwad Geeta 10:3)
Vedas are the most sacred amongst all the Hindu Scriptures. There are principally 4 Vedas: Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, and Atharvaveda.
i. Yajurveda Chapter 32, Verse 3
It is mentioned in Yajurveda:
“na tasya pratima asti”
“There is no image of Him”
It further says,
“as He is unborn, He deserves our worship”.
(The Yajurveda by Devi Chand M.A. pg. 377)
ii. Yajurveda Chapter 40 Verse 8
It is mentioned in Yajurveda Chapter 40 verse 8:
“He is bodiless and pure”.
(Yajurveda Samhita by Ralph I. H. Griffith pg. 538)
iii. Yajurved Chapter 40 Verse 9
It is mentioned in Yajurved
“Andhatma pravishanti ye assambhuti mupaste”
“They enter darkness, those who worship natural things.”
(Yajurveda Samhita by Ralph I. H. Griffith pg. 538)
E.g. worship of natural elements air, water, fire, etc.
It further continues and says:
“They sink deeper in darkness those who worship sambhuti i.e. created things”
E.g. created things such as table, chair, idols, etc.
i. Atharva Veda book 20 hymn (chapter) 58 verse 3
It is mentioned in Atharva Veda
“Dev Maha Osi”
“God is Verily Great.”
(Atharva Veda 20:58:3)
(Atharvaveda Samhita Vol. 2, William Duright Whitney pg. 910)
The oldest and most sacred amongst all the Vedas is the Rigveda.
i. Rigveda Book no. 1, Hymn No. 164, verse 46
It is mentioned in Rigveda:
“Ekam sat vipra bahudha vadanty.”
“Sages (learned Priests) call one God by many names.”
Truth is one, God is one, sages call it by various names.
A similar message is given in Rigveda, Book 10, hymn 114, verse 5.
ii. Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1
Rigveda gives no less than 33 different attributes to Almighty God. Several of these attributes are mentioned in Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1
a. Brahma - Creator - Khaliq – Rigveda Book 2 Hymn 1 Verse 3
Amongst the various attributes given in Rigveda , one of the beautiful attributes for Almighty God is ‘Brahma’. ‘Brahma’ means ‘the Creator’. If you translate into Arabic it means ‘Khaliq’. Islam does not object to anyone calling Almighty God as ‘Khaliq’ or ‘Creator’ or ‘Brahma’, but if someone says that ‘Brahma’ i.e. Almighty God has got four heads and on each head is a crown and this Brahma has got four hands, Islam takes strong exception to it because such descriptions give an image to Almighty God. Such descriptions are also against what is propounded in Yajurveda Chapter 32, verse 3 which says:
“Na tasya pratima asti”
“There is no image of Him”.
b. Vishnu – Sustainer - Rabb : Rigveda Book 2, Hymn 1, verse 3
Another beautiful attribute mentioned in the Rigveda Book 2, Hymn 1, Verse 3 is Vishnu. ‘Vishnu’ means ‘the Sustainer’. If you translate this word into Arabic it means ‘Rabb’. Islam has no objection if anyone calls Almighty God as ‘Rabb’ or ‘Sustainer’ or ‘Vishnu’, but if someone says that Vishnu is Almighty God and this Vishnu has four arms, one of the right arms holds the ‘chakra’ i.e. a discus and one of the left arms holds a ‘conch shell’ and Vishnu rides on a bird or reclines on a snake couch, then Islam takes strong exception to this, because such descriptions of Vishnu give an image to Almighty God. Such descriptions are also against what is taught in Yajurveda Chapter 40 verse 8.
“Na tasya pratima asti”
“There is no image of Him”.
iii. Rigveda Book 8 hymn 1 verse 1
It is mentioned in Rigveda:
“Ma Chidanyadvi Shansata”
“Do not worship anybody but Him, the Divine One, Praise Him alone”
(Rigveda Samhiti Vol. IX, pg. 1 & 2 by Swami Satyaprakash Sarasvati & Satyakam Vidhya Lankar)
iv. Rigveda Book 5 Hymn 81 verse 1
It is mentioned in Rigveda:
“Verily great is the glory of the Divine Creator”
(Rigveda Samhiti Vol. 6, pg 1802 & 1803 by Swami Satyaprakash Sarasvati & Satyakam Vidhya Lanka)
v. Rigveda Book no. VI, Hymn 45, verse 16
It is mentioned in Rigveda
“Ya Eka Ittamushtuhi”
“Praise Him who is the matchless & alone”.
(Hymns of Rigveda by Ralph T. H. Griffith pg. 648)
(Rigveda Samhiti Vol. 7, pg 2108 & 2109 by Swami Satyaprakash Sarasvati & Satyakam Vidhya Lanka)
BRAHMA SUTRA OF HINDU VEDANTA
The Brahma Sutra of Hindu Vedanta is:
‘Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kinchan”
“Bhagwan ek hi hai dusara nahi hai, nahi hai, nahi hai, zara bhi nahi hai”.
“There is only one God, not the second, not at all, not at all, not in the least bit”.
All the above quoted verses and passages from Hindu Scriptures clearly amplify the Oneness and Uniqueness of Almighty God, the Creator of all. Furthermore, they negate the existence of any other deity besides the One True God. These verses essentially propound monotheism.
Therefore only if one carefully studies the Hindu Scriptures, will one understand and realize the correct concept of God in Hinduism.
CONCEPT OF GOD IN ISLAM
We will find similarities in the concept of God in Hinduism and in islam since the Qur'an too propounds monotheism (as do Hindu scriptures we examined above).
a. SURAH IKHLAS WITH EXPLANATION
As per Islam, the best and the most
concise definition of God is given in Surah Ikhlas of the Glorious Qur’an:
Say: He is Allah,
The One and Only;
Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
He begets not,
Nor is He begotten;
And there is none
Like unto Him.
(Al Qur’an 112:1-4)
The word ‘As Samad’ is difficult to
translate. It means that absolute existence can be attributed only to Allah, all
other existence being temporal or conditional. It also means Allah is not
dependant on any person or thing but all persons and things are dependent on
The Surah Al Ikhlas i.e. Chapter 112 of the
Glorious Qur’an is the touchstone of Theology. ‘Theo’ in Greek means God and
‘logy’ means study. Thus ‘Theology’ means study of God and Surah Ikhlas is the
touchstone of the study of God.
If you want to purchase or sell your
gold jewellery, you would first evaluate it. Such an evaluation of gold
jewellery is done by a goldsmith with the help of a touchstone. He rubs the gold
jewellery on the touch stone and compares its colour with rubbing samples of
gold. If it matches with 24 Karat gold he will tell that your jewellery is 24
Karat pure Gold. If it is not high quality pure Gold, he will tell you its value
whether 22 Karats, 18 Karats or it may not be gold at all. It may be fake
because all that glitters is not gold.
Similarly Surah Ikhlas (Chapter 112
of the Qur’an) is the touchstone of theology, which can verify whether the deity
that you worship is a true God or a false God. Thus, Surah Ikhlaas is a
four-line definition of Almighty God according to the Qur’an. If any one claims
to be, or is believed to be Almighty God satisfies this four-line definition, we
Muslims will readily accept that deity as God. This Chapter of the Glorious
Qur’an, Surah Ikhlas, is the acid test. It is the ‘Furqan’ or the criterion to
judge between the one True God and false claimants to divinity. Hence, whichever
deity any human on earth worships, if such a deity fulfills the criteria
specified in this Chapter of the Qur’an, then this deity is worthy of worship
and is the One True God.
b. Is Bhagwan Rajneesh God?
Some people say that Bhagwan
Rajneesh or Osho Rajneesh is Almighty God. Please note my words, I have stated
that some people say that Bhagwan Rajneesh is Almighty God. Once during a
question-answer session there was a Hindu gentleman who misunderstood my
statement. He said that Hindus do not worship Rajneesh as God. I am aware that
Hinduism does not consider Rajneesh to be God. Rajneesh has followers, who are
converts to his philosophy / ideology, but who were originally followers of
various different religions.
Let us put this candidate Bhagwan
Rajneesh to the test of Divinity as prescribed by Surah Ikhlaas, the touchstone
(i) The First Criterion is ‘Qul hu
Allah hu ahad’ –‘say, He is Allah one and only’. Is Rajneesh one and only? We
know several such fake god-men and claimants of divinity amongst humans. Several
are found in our country, India. Rajneesh is surely not one and only. Not as a
human and not even as a human claimant to godhood. However, some disciples of
Rajneesh may still state that Rajneesh is unique and that he is one and only.
(ii) Let us analyse the second
criterion ‘Allah hus samad’– ‘Allah the Absolute & ‘Eternal’. Is Rajneesh
absolute and eternal? We know from his biography that he was suffering from
diabetes, asthama, and chronic backache. He alleged that the U.S.A. government
gave him slow poisoning while he was in their jail. Imagine! Almighty God being
poisoned! Moreover, all are aware that Rajneesh died and was cremated / buried.
So Rajneesh was neither eternal, nor absolute
(iii) The third Criteria is ‘Lam ya
lid wa lam yu lad’ – ‘He begets not, nor is begotten’. However, Rajneesh was
begotten. He was born in Jabalpur in India. Like all humans, he too had a mother
and a father. They later on become his disciples.
Rajneesh was a very intelligent
person. In May 1981 he went to U.S.A. He established a town in Oregon and named
it ‘Rajneeshpuram’. It seems that he took America for a ride for the U.S.
government arrested him and later deported him out of America in 1985. So
Rajneesh returned to India and started a ‘Rajneesh Neosanyas commune in Pune in
India which was later renamed the ‘Osho commune’.
If you visit this ‘Osho commune’ in
Pune you will find it written on his tombstone, “Osho - never born, never died,
only visited the planet earth between 11th Dec. 1931 to 19th Jan 1990”. They
conveniently forget to mention on this tombstone that Rajneesh was not given a
visa for 21 different countries of the world. Imagine Almighty God visiting the
earth and requiring a visa! The Arch Bishop of Greece had said that if Rajneesh
was not deported they would burn his house and those of his disciples.
(iv) The fourth test is so stringent
that none besides the One True God, Allah (swt), can pass it. ‘Wa lam ya kullahu
kufuwan ahad’ which means, ‘there is none like Him’. The moment you can imagine
or compare the candidate or claimant to godhood to anything, this candidate is
not god. Neither can you have a mental picture of God.
We know that Rajneesh was a human
being. He had one head, two hands, two feet, and a white flowing beard. The
moment you can think or imagine what the claimant to godhood is, he or she is
Suppose someone says, “God is a
thousand times as strong as Arnold Schwarzenegger”. Arnold Schwarzenegger is one
of the strongest men on earth. He was given the title ‘Mr. Universe’ in (the
year). The moment you can compare Almighty God to anything, whether it is a 1000
times stronger or a million times stronger, whether it be Darasingh or Kingkong,
the moment you can compare the claimant to godhood to anything, he is not God.
‘Wa lam ya kul lahu kufwan ahad’ ‘there is none like Him.’
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD
(i) The Qur’an mentions in Surah
Isra Chapter 17 Verse 110:
Say: “Call upon Allah, or Call upon Rahman;
By whatever name ye call Upon Him, (it is well):
For to Him belong The Most Beautiful Names
(Al Qur’an 17:110)
To All belongs the most beautiful names.
You can call Allah by any name but
that name should be beautiful and should not conjure up a mental picture. The
Qur’an gives no less than 99 different attributes to Almighty God. Some of these
are Ar-Rahman, Ar-Raheem, Al-Hakeem; Most Gracious, Most Merciful and All Wise.
99 different names / attributes and the crowning one, the hundredth one is
Allah. The Qur’an repeats this message that to Allah belong the most beautiful
(i) Surah Al Aaraf Chapter 7 Verse
(ii) In Surah Taha Chapter 20 Verse
(iii) In Surah Al Hashr Chapter 59
Verse 23 & 24
NAME ‘ALLAH’ PREFERED TO THE WORD
The Muslims prefer calling Allah (swt)
with His Name Allah, instead of the English word ‘God’. The Arabic word Allah is
pure and unique, unlike the English word God which can be played around with.
If you add ‘s’ to God, it becomes
‘gods’ that is plural of God. Allah is one and singular, there is no plural of
Allah. If you add ‘dess’ to God, it becomes ‘goddess’ that is a female God.
There is nothing like male Allah or female Allah. Allah has no gender. If you
add father to God, it becomes ‘godfather’. “He is my Godfather” means that “he
is my guardian”. There is nothing like Allah Abba or Allah father in Islam. If
you add mother to God it becomes ‘godmother, there is nothing like Allah Ammi or
Allah Mother in Islam. If you put tin before God, it becomes tin god i.e. a fake
God, there is nothing like-tin Allah or fake Allah in Islam. Allah is a unique
word, which does not conjure up any mental picture nor can it be played around
with. Hence, the Muslims prefer the name Allah when referring to the Almighty
Creator. But sometimes while speaking to non-Muslims we may have to use the
inappropriate word God for Allah.
Allah is mentioned by Name in Hindu
Scriptures.There is an Upanishad by the name ALO Upanishad.
The Word “Allah”, which refers to
Almighty God in Arabic, is also mentioned in:
Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1 verse 11
Rigveda Book 3 hymn 30 verse 10
Rigveda Book 9 hymn 67 verse 30
THE CONCEPT OF GOD IN HINDU SCRIPTURES
We had earlier stated that as per
Islam the best and the most concise definition of God is as given in Surah
Ikhlas of the Glorious Qur’an:
Say: He is Allah,
The One and Only;
Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
He begets not,Nor is He begotten;
And there is none Like unto Him.
(Al Qur’an 112:1-4)
Similar Verses in Hindu Scriptues
There are several passages in the
Hindu Scriptures, which have the same or similar meaning as Surah Ikhlas.
1. Say: He is Allah, The One and
(Al Qur’an 112:1)
It has a meaning which is very
“He is only one without a second.”
(Chandogya Upanishad 6:2:1)
2. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute.
He begets not,
Nor is He begotten;
(Al Qur’an 112:2-3)
It has similar meaning as:
“He who knows Me as the unborn, as
the beginning-less, as the Supreme Lord of all the Worlds.”
(Bhagvad Gita 10:3)
“Of (check – or For Him?) Him
there is neither parents nor Lord.”
(Shwetashvatara Upanishad 6:9)
3. And there is none Like unto Him.
(Al Qur’an 112:4)
A similar message is given in
Shwetashvatara Upanishad & Yajurveda:
“Na Tasya pratima asti”
“There is no likeness of Him.”
(Shwetashvatara Upanishad 4:19 &
Remember, the Brahma Sutra of Hindu
‘Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na
“Bhagwan ek hi hai dusara nahi hai,
nahi hai, nahi hai, zara bhi nahi hai”.
“There is only one God, not the
second, not at all, not at all, not in the least bit”.
Concept of Angels in Hinduism and
We shall now examine the belief in angels of God in these two major religions
and study if there are similarities.
1. Angels in Islam
Angels are a creation of Allah (swt). They have been created from light and
are normally unseen. They do not have a free will of their own and hence they
always obey the commandments of Almighty Allah. Due to the absence of free will
they cannot disobey God. Different angels have been appointed by Almighty Allah
for different activities. For example, Archangel Gabriel (Jibreel) was appointed
to convey the revelation of Allah (swt) to the prophets of Allah.
Since angels are a creation of God, and not God, Muslims do not worship angels.
2. Angels in Hinduism
There is no concept of angels in Hinduism. However Hindus believe that there
are certain super-beings, which perform acts, which cannot be done by normal
human beings. These super-beings too are worshipped as deities by some Hindus.
CONCEPT OF REVELATION IN HINDUISM AND IN ISLAM
Let us now study what the Hindu and Islamic scriptures state regarding God’s
revelations or books revealed by God for the guidance of humans:
(i) Concept of Revelation in Islam
1. Allah (swt) has sent a revelation in every age.
Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an:
“For each period Is a Book (revealed)
(Al Qur’an 13:38)
2. Four Revelations mentioned by name in the Qur’an:
There are several revelations sent by Allah (swt) in different ages for the
guidance of human beings of the respective ages. Only four revelations are
mentioned by name in the Qur’an: these are the. Torah, Zabur, Injeel and the
Torah is the Wahi, the revelation which was revealed to Prophet Moses (pbuh).
Zabur is the Wahi, the revelation which was revealed to Prophet David (pbuh)
Injeel is the Wahi, the revelation which was revealed to Prophet Jesus (pbuh)
The Qur’an is the last and final Wahi, the final revelation, which was revealed
to the Last and Final Messenger Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
3. All previous revelations were only meant for a particular group of people and
for a particular time period.
Each of the revelations, prior to the revelation of the Glorious Qur’an, was
meant only for a particular period and for a particular group of people.
4. The Qur’an was revealed for whole of Humankind
Since the Qur’an was the last and final revelation of Almighty Allah, it was
revealed not only for the Muslims or the Arabs but it was revealed for whole of
Humankind. Further, the Qur’an was not revealed only for the era of the Prophet
but it was revealed for the all of Humankind until the Last Day.
a. Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an:
Alif Lam Ra. A Book which We have revealed unto thee,
in order that thou mightest lead mankind
Out of the depths of darkness into light
- by the leave of their Lord --
to the way of (Him) the Exalted in Power,
Worthy of all Praise!
(Al Qur’an 14:1)
b. Here is a Message for mankind;
Let them take warning therefrom,
And let them know that He is (no other than) One God:
Let men of understanding take heed
(Al Qur’an 14:52)
c. Ramadan is the (month)
in which was sent down
The Qur’an, as a guide
also clear (Signs) for Guidance and Judgement
(Between right and wrong)
(Al Qur’an 2:185)
d. Verily We have revealed
j The Book to thee
for (instructing) mankind
(Al Qur’an 39:41)
Al Qur’an is God’s Word. It is the most sacred scripture of Islam. It is the
Last and Final Revelation of Almighty God which was revealed in the sixth
century of the English Calendar to the last and final messenger Prophet Muhammad
5. The Qur’an is mentioned in the previous scriptures and in scriptures of other
It is mentioned in the Qur’an:
Without doubt it is (announced)
In the revealed Books
Of former peoples.
(Al Qur’an 26:196)
The mention of the Glorious Qur’an, this last and final Revelation of Almighty
God, is made in all the previous scriptures and in the scriptures of various
The other sacred scripture of Islam besides the Qur’an are the hadith i.e. the
sayings and traditions of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). These hadith are
supplementary to the Glorious Qur’an. They do not and cannot overrule the
teachings of the Qur’an nor will they contradict the Qur’an.
(ii) BOOKS OF HINDUISM
There are two kinds of sacred writings in Hinduism: Shruti and Smriti.
'Shruti' means that which has been heard, perceived, understood or revealed. It is
the oldest and the most sacred of the Hindu’s Scriptures. The Shruti is divided
into two main parts: the Vedas and the Upanishads and these two are considered
to be of divine origin.
'Smriti' is not as sacred as the shruti. Yet it is considered to be important and is
popular with the Hindus today. Smriti means memory or remembered. This Hindu
literature is easier to understand because it speaks about the truths of the
Universe through Symbolism and Mythology. The smriti are not considered to be of
divine origin but are accepted as human composition. The Smriti lists rules
governing the actions of the individual, the community and the society, which
regulate and guide individuals in their daily conduct. They are also known as
Dharma Shastra. Smrtis consist of many writings including the Puranas and
There are several Holy Scriptures of the Hindus; among them are the Vedas,
Upanishads and the Puranas.
(a) The Vedas and the Upanishads (the shrutis), and
(b) The Puranas and the Itihaass (the Smritis).
i) The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘vid’, which means to know.
The word ‘Veda’ therefore, means knowledge par excellence or sacred wisdom.
There are four principal divisions of the Vedas. (Although according to their
number, they amount to 1131 out of which about a dozen are available. According
to MahaBhasya of Patanjali, there are 21 branches of Rig Veda, 9 types of
Atharva Veda, 101 branches of Yajur Veda and 1000 of Sam Veda)
ii) The Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda and the Sam Veda are considered to be more
ancient books and are known as ‘Trai Viddya’ or the ‘Triple Sciences’. The Rig
Veda is the oldest and has been compiled in three long and different periods of
time. The 4th Veda is the Atharva Veda, which is of a later date.
Rigveda is mainly composed of songs of praise.
Yajurveda deals sacrificial formula.
Samveda refers to melody.
Atharva Veda has a large number of magic formulas.
iii) There is no unanimous opinion regarding the date of compilation or
revelation of the four Vedas. According to Swami Dayanand, who was the founder
of the Arya Samaj, the Vedas were revealed 1310 millions of years ago and
according to other scholars they are not more than 4000 years old.
iv) Similarly there is a difference of opinion regarding the places where these
books were revealed and the Rishis to whom these Scriptures were given. In spite
of these differences, the Vedas are considered the most authentic of the Hindu
Scriptures and the real foundations of the Hindu Dharma.
i) The word ‘Upanishad’ is derived from ‘Upa’ meaning ‘near’, ‘ni’ which means
‘down’ and ‘shad’ means ‘to sit’. Therefore Upanishads means sitting down near.
Groups of pupils sit near the teacher to learn from him the sacred doctrines.
According to Samkara, Upanishad is derived from the root word ‘sad’ which means
‘to loosen’, ‘to reach’ or ‘to destroy’, with ‘upa’ and ‘ni’ as prefix.
Therefore Upanishad means ‘Brahma knowledge’ by which ignorance is loosened or
The number of Upanishads exceeds 200 though the Indian tradition puts it at 108.
There are 10 principal Upanishads however some consider them to be more than 10,
while others state that there are 18.
ii) The Vedanta meant originally the Upanishads, though the word is now used for
the system of philosophy based on the Upanishad. Literally, Vedanta means the
end of the Veda, Vedasya-antah, the conclusion as well as the goal of Vedas. The
Upanishads are the concluding portions of the Vedas and chronologically they
come at the end of the Vedic period.
iii) Some Pundits consider the Upanishad to be superior to the Vedas.
3. ITIHAS – EPIC
There are two Itihas or epics namely the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
Ramayana is an epic, which deals with the life story of Rama. Most Hindus are
aware of the story of the Ramayana.
Mahabharata is another great epic, which speaks about the feud between the
cousins: the Pandavas and the Kauravas. It also contains the life story of
Krishna. The story of this epic, the Mahabharata, is also commonly known to most
4. BHAGVAD GITA
Bhagvad Gita is the most popular and well known amongst all the Hindu
scriptures. It is a part of the epic Mahabharata and contains 18 Chapters in
Bhishma Parva Chapters 25 to 42. It contains the advice given by Krishna, in the
battlefield, to Arjun.
Next in order of authenticity are the Puranas, which are the most widely
read scripture. The word ‘Puranas’ means ‘ancient’ The Puranas contain the
History of the Creation of the Universe, history of the early Aryan Tribes and
life stories of the divines and deities of the Hindus. The Puranas are revealed
books like the Vedas, which were revealed simultaneously with the Vedas or at
sometime close to the revelation of the Vedas
Maharishi Vyasa has divided the Puranas into 18 voluminous parts. He also arranged the Vedas under various heads. The Gita and the Mahabharata were authored or compilied by him.
the Puranas is a book known as Bhavishya Purana. It is called so because it
gives prophecies of future events. The Hindus consider the Bhavishya Purana to
be the word of God. Maharishi Vyasa is considered a mere compiler of the book
the real author being God.
6. OTHER SCRIPTURES
There are several other Hindu Scriptures like Manu Smriti, Satapatha, Barahmana, Srimad Bhagavatam, Vishnu Sutra etc.
MOST AUTHENTIC HINDU SCRIPTURES ARE THE VEDAS
Amongst all the Hindu Scriptures, the Vedas are considered the most authentic.
No other Hindu Scriptures overrule the Vedas. If there is a contradiction
between the Vedas and any other Hindu scripture, the opinion of the Veda will
prevail, according to Hindu Scholars.
CONCEPT OF PROPHETHOOD IN HINDUISM
AND IN ISLAM
Messengers or Prophets of Almighty God are
persons chosen by Almighty God to communicate His message to the people.
Messengers were sent to every nation
a. To every
people (was sent) a Messenger:
when their Messenger comes (before
them), the matter
will be judged
between them with justice,
and they will not be
(Al Qur’an 10:47)
b. For We
assuredly sent amongst every
people a messenger
command), “Serve Allah and eschew
Of the people
were some whom Allah guided,
and some on whom Error became inevitably
So travel through the
earth, and see what was the end
of those who denied
(Al Qur’an 16:36)
c. And there never
was A people,
without a warner Having lived
among them (in the
(Al Qur’an 35:24)
d. And to every
people a guide.
(Al Qur’an 13:7)
25 PROPHETS ARE
MENTIONED BY NAME IN THE QUR’AN
There are 25 Prophets mentioned by name in the
Glorious Qur’an. Some of such prophets are: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus,
and Muhammad (peace be upon them all).
STORIES OF ONLY
SOME PROPHETS MENTIONED IN THE QUR’AN
It is mentioned in the Qur’an:
a. Of some messengers We have Already
told you the story;
we have not And to
Moses Allah spoke direct.
(Al Qur’an 4:164)
We did aforetime send Messengers
of them There are
some whose story We have
related to you,
whose story We have
not related to you.
(Al Qur’an 40:78)
PROPHETS SENT BY ALLAH
According to a Sahih Hadith in Mishkatul Masaabih Vol. 3 hadith
Ahmad Ibn Hambal
Vol. 5 page 265-266:
1,24,000 prophets sent by Allah (swt)
PROPHETS WERE SENT ONLY FOR THEIR PEOPLE
All the prophets that came before Prophet
Muhammad (pbuh) were sent for their people and nation, and the complete message
they preached was meant only for that time.
(PBUH) IS THE LAST AND FINAL MESSENGER
It is mentioned in Surah Al-Ahzab
Muhammad is not the father of any of your men,
but (he is) the Messenger of
and the Seal of
and Allah has
full knowledge of all things
(Al Qur’an 33:40)
PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH) SENT FOR WHOLE OF
Since Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the last and final messenger of Allah (swt),
he was not sent for only Muslims or the Arabs but he was sent for the whole of
Humankind. It is mentioned in the Qur’an
a. We sent you not,
but as a mercy for
(Al Qur’an 21:107)
b.We have not sent you
but as a
universal (Messenger) to men, giving
them glad tidings,
and warning them (Against sin),
but most men understand not.
(Al Qur’an 34:28)
It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari:
“Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) said every prophet used
to be sent
“Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) said every prophet used
to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to whole of humankind”.
(Sahih Bukhari Vol. 1, Book of Salaah Chapter 56
MESSENGERS IN HINDUISM
according to common Hindus Common
Hindus have the following concept of Avatar. Avatar is the Sanskrit term where ‘Av’ means ‘down and ‘tr’ means ’passover’. Thus Avatar means to descend down or to come down. The meaning of in the oxford Dictionary is, “(In Hindu Mythology) the descent of a deity or
released soul to earth in bodily form”. In simple words, Avatar according to
common Hindus means Almighty God coming down to earth in bodily form.
A Common Hindu
believes that God Almighty comes down to the earth in some bodily form to
protect the religion, to set an example or to set the rules for human beings.
There is no
reference of Avatars anywhere in the Vedas, the most sacred of the Hindu
scriptures i.e. sruti. However it is found in the smrti i.e., the Puranas and
(i) It is
mentioned in the most popular and widely read book of Hinduism Bhagavad Geeta
Chapter 4 verse 7-8:
is a decay of righteousness, O Bharata,
And a rise
of unrighteousness, then I manifest Myself
protection of the good, for the destruction of the
wicked and for
the establishment of righteousness, I am born in every age.
ii) It is
mentioned in Bhagawata Purana:
is deterioration in righteousness and waxing of sinfulness,
lord incarnates himself
2. No Concept of
Avatar but Messenger in Veda and Islam
Islam does not
believe that Almighty God takes human forms. He chooses a man amongst men and
communicates with them on a higher level to deliver his message to the human
beings – such individuals are called Messengers of God.
mentioned earlier, is derived from ‘Av’ and ‘tr’, which means to descend down or
come down. Some scholars state that God’s Avatar indicates a possessive case and
actually means the coming of a man “who is in special relationship with God”.
Mention of such chosen men of God appears in several places in all the four
Vedas. Thus if we have to reconcile Bhagavad Gita and Purana with the most
authoritative scripture the Vedas, we have to agree that Bhagavad Gita and the
Puranas, when they speak about Avatars, they refer to chosen men of God. Islam
calls such men Prophets.
a. God need not take human form to understand human
religions have at some time or the other propounded the belief in the philosophy
of anthropomorphism i.e. the concept of God taking human form. Those who believe
in it have a seemingly good logic for it. They state that Almighty God is so
pure and holy that He is unaware of the hardships, shortcomings, weaknesses,
difficulties, feelings, passions, emotions and temptations of human beings. He
does not know how a person feels when he or she is hurt or is in trouble.
Therefore, in order to set rules of behaviour and conduct for human beings, God
came down to earth in the form of a human. On the face of it, this seems to be
logical. But we need to examine this.
b. Creator prepares an instruction manual
manufacture a DVD Player, do I have to become a DVD Player to know what is
good or bad for the DVD Player? The manufacturer does not have to himself
play the role of a DVD Player to understand the stress caused by normal usage
or even faulty usage of the DVD Player.
Hence, for the
users, as the manufacturer, I write an instruction manual. In this manual I
state, “in order to listen to a DVD, insert the DVD and press
the ‘play’ button. In order to stop, press the ‘stop’ button. If you want to
fast forward press the ‘Fast Forward’ button. Do not drop it from a height for
it will get damaged. Do not immerse it in water for it will get spoilt”.
Manufacturers write an instruction manual or a user manual, which contains the
do’s and don’ts for usage of the machine.
c. The Glorious Qur’an is the instruction manual for human beings
In a similar
fashion, our Lord and Creator, Allah (s.w.t.) does not need to come to earth in
the form of a human being to know what is good or bad for the human beings. He,
who has created this vast universe, has complete knowledge of His Creation. He
only has to reveal the instruction manual for the benefit of humans. Such a
manual from the Creator informs and explains:
(i) the purpose and objective of
the existence of human beings
(ii) who created them and
(iii) what they should
do and what they should refrain and abstain from in order to get eternal
The last and
final instruction manual for human beings from their Creator is the Glorious
d. Allah chooses Messengers
Allah (swt) does
need to come down personally for writing the instruction manual. He chooses a
man amongst men to deliver His message and communicates with him at a higher
level through His revelations. Such chosen men are called messengers and
prophets of God. God conveys His revelations to such persons.
WILL NOT AND DOES NOT TAKE HUMAN FORM:
a. God cannot do everything:
people may argue that God can do everything, then why can he not take human
form? If God were to take human form, then He would no longer remain God because
the qualities of God and the qualities of human beings are different.
(i) God is immortal. Human beings
God is immortal;
human beings are mortal. You cannot have a ‘God-man’ i.e. an immortal and
mortal being at the same time. It is meaningless.
God does not
have a beginning. Human beings have a beginning. You cannot have a person, who
does not have a beginning and yet at the same time having a beginning.
God has no end.
Humans have an end. You can’t have an entity that has no end and still have an
end at the same time. It is meaningless.
(ii) God does not require to eat:
does not require to eat. Human beings need to eat. The Glorious Qur’an says in
And He it is
that feeds but is not
(Al Qur’an 6:14)
(iii) God does not require rest and sleep:
God does not
require rest. Human beings require rest. God does not require sleep. Human
beings require sleep. The Glorious Qur’an says in Ayatul Kursi:
Allah! There is
no god but He –
No slumber can
seize Him; nor sleep.
all things in the heavens and on earth
Worshipping another human being is useless:
If God takes
human form, he would cease to be god and it is useless to worship a human being,
e.g. suppose that I am a student of a very intelligent teacher and I regularly
take his guidance and help in my studies. If unfortunately, my teacher meets
with an accident and has amnesia i.e. an un-repairable loss of memory, it will
be foolish of me to yet seek guidance and help in my studies from him. Because
this person no longer has the expertise after the transformation of his memory
due to the accident. In a similar fashion how can a human being worship and ask
for divine help from a god who has given up his divine qualities and has
transformed himself into a human being like you and I? If a person can worship a
human being then why not others worship you and also worship so many humans
Human beings cannot become God:
So an entity
cannot be both: God and a human at the same time. For if God retains His divine
powers then He is not a human because humans do not have divine powers. And if
God were to become a mortal which is a human quality, then he is no longer God,
for God is immortal.
Later on that
same human being cannot become God, because it is not possible for human beings
to become God. If it was so, you and I too would become God and attain divine
That is the
reason why God will never take or rather cannot take human form. The Qur’an
speaks against all forms of anthropomorphism. Anthropomorphism is illogical.
God will not do ungodly things:
not say that God can do anything. Islam says that God has power over all things.
Let us understand this with the help of some examples of matters that God cannot
do simply because He is Divine.
God will not tell a lie
God only does
Godly things; He does not do ungodly things. God cannot tell a lie. He cannot
even have a desire to lie or to make a false statement. God will never, and can
never tell a lie because to tell a lie is an ungodly act. The moment God tells a
lie, He will cease to be God.
(ii) God will not do any
God cannot do
injustice nor can He even harbour a desire to do an unjust act or take an unjust
decision. He will not do it and He cannot do so because being unjust is an
ungodly act. The Qur’an says:
“Allah is never unjust in the least degree.” (Al Qur’an 4:40)
The moment God
does injustice He ceases to be God. Please realize that God cannot be God and
not-God at the same time!!! He cannot have divine qualities as a Creator, and
yet have the mortal qualities and attributes of His Creation.
God will not make a mistake
Perfection is a
quality only of the Creator. His creation can never ever achieve this quality.
We can only try to continually improve and excel but we can never ever be
Hence, can God
ever make a mistake? He will never make a mistake. He cannot make a mistake. To
err is human. Making a mistake is an ungodly act. Qur’an says, “…My lord
never errs.” (Al Qur’an 20:52)
accepting that God was to commit a mistake, the moment God makes a mistake He
ceases to be God.
(iv) God will not forget
God will not
forget because forgetting is an ungodly act. Qur’an says, “…My lord never
errs, nor forgets.” (Al Qur’an 20:52)
The moment God
forgets he ceases to be god.
e. God only does Godly things
Allah has power
over all things
Glorious Qur’an says in several places
Allah has power over all things”
statement of Divine Wisdom is emphasized for our understanding in:
chapter 2 verse 106;
Surah Baqarah chapter 2 verse 109
Surah Baqarah chapter 2 verse 284
Imran chapter 3 verse 29
chapter 16 verse 77
chapter 35 verse 1
ii.Allah is the
doer of all, all He intends:
is the doer of all he intends.”
God only intends
Godly things – not unGodly things. By
ascribing human-like qualities of forgetting, of making mistakes, of getting
tired, of needing food, of getting jealous and the like – does one realize that
one is mocking God and committing blasphemy by ascribing such attributes to God?
Do you think we humans are in any way justified in attributing such human
qualities to God?
Is it not a
better choice, and a truthful one at that, to state that our Creator is free
from all such blemishes that ignorant humans ascribe to Him?
For the Glorious
Glory to your Lord, the Lord of Honor and Power!
(He is) free from what they ascribe (to Him)!
(Al Qur'an 37:180)
MUHAMMAD (PBUH) PROPHESIED IN HINDU SCRIPTURES
a. Muhammad (pbuh) prophesied in Bhavishya Purana:
Bhavishya Purana in the Prati Sarag Parv III, Khand 3, Adhyay 3, Shalokas 5-8:
(belonging to a foreign country and speaking a foreign language) spiritual
teacher will appear with his companions, His name will be Mohammad. Raja (Bhoj)
after giving this Maha Dev Arab (of angelic disposition) a bath in the
‘panchgavya’ and the Ganges water (i.e. purging him of all sins) offered him the
presents of his sincere devotion and showing him all reverence said, “I make
obeisance to thee, ‘O ye! The pride of mankind, the dweller in Arabia, ye have
collected a great force to kill the devil and you yourself have been protected
from the malechha opponents”.
The Prophecy clearly states:
name of the Prophet as Muhammad.
(ii) He will belong to Arabia; the Sanskrit
word Marusthal means a sandy track of land or a desert.
(iii) Special mention is made of the
companions of the prophet i.e. the Sahabas. No other Prophet had as many
companions as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
(iv) He is referred as the pride of mankind (Parbatis
The Glorious Qur’an reconfirms:
“And thou (standest)
on an exalted standard of character”
‘Ye have indeed
in the Messenger of Allah, a beautiful pattern (of conduct)’(Al Qur’an
(v) He will
kill the devil i.e. abolish idol worship and all sorts of vices.
prophet will be protected against his enemies.
Some people may
argue that Raja Bhoj mentioned in the prophecy lived in the 11th
i.e. 500 years after the advent of
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and that he was the descendant of the 10th
generation of Raja Shalivahan. These people fail to realize that there was not
only one Raja of the name Bhoj. The Egyptian Monarchs were called as Pharaohs
and the Roman Kings were known as Caesars. Similarly Indian Rajas were given the
title of Bhoj. There were several Raja Bhojs who came before the one in 11th
The prophet did
not physically take a bath in Panch gavya and the water of Ganges. Since the
water of Ganges is considered holy, taking bath in the Ganges is an idiom
meaning washing away or making immune from all sorts of sins. Here the prophecy
implies that prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was sinless i.e. ‘maasoom’.
Muhammad (pbuh) prophesied in Bhavishya Purana:
Bhavishya Purana in the Pratisarag Parv III, Khand 3, Adhyay 3 Shalokas 10 to 27
Maharishi Vyas has prophesied:
have spoiled the well-known land of the Arabs. Arya Dharma is not to be found in
the country. Before also there appeared a misguided fiend whom I had killed; he
has now again appeared being sent by a powerful enemy. To show these enemies the
right path and to give them guidance the well-known Mohamad (Mohammad) who has
been given by me, the epithet of Brahma, is busy in bringing the ‘Pishachas’ to
the right path. O Raja, you need not go to the land of the foolish Pishachas,
you will be purified through my kindness even where you are. At night, he of the
angelic disposition, the shrewd man, in the guise of a pischacha said to Raja
Bhoj, O Raja! Your Arya Dharma has been made to prevail over all religions, but
according to the commandments of Ishwar Parmatama, I shall enforce the strong
creed of the meat eaters. My followers will be men circumcised, without a tail
(on his head), keeping beard, creating a revolution announcing Adhan (call for
prayer) and will be eating all lawful things. He will eat all sorts of animals
except swine. They will not seek purification from the holy shrubs, but will be
purified through warfare. On account of their fighting the irreligious nations,
they will be known as Musalmaans. I shall be the originator of this religion of
the meat-eating nation.”
evildoers have corrupted the Arab land.
Dharma is not found in that land.
ipresent enemies will be destroyed just as the previous enemies like Abraha had
perished. The Qur’an speaks about these sorts of previous enemies in Surah Al
“Seest thou not
how thy lord dealt with the
Did He not make
their treacherous plan go astray?
And He sent
against them flights of Birds
with stones of baked clay
Then did he make
them like an empty field
Of stalk and
straw, (of which the corn) has been eaten up.
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has been given the title Brahma to guide the opponents
Indian Raja need not go to Arab land since his purification will take place in
India after the Musalmaan will arise in India.
coming Prophet will attest the truth of the Aryan faith i.e. Monotheism and will
reform the misguided people.
Prophet’s followers will be circumcised. They will be without a tale on their
heads, they will keep beards and they will create a great revolution.
will announce the adhan i.e. ‘call for prayer’.
will only eat lawful things and animals, but will not eat pork. The Qur’an
confirms this in no less than 4 different places:
In Surah Al-Baqarah chapter 2 verse 173
In Surah Al-Maidah chapter 5
In Surah Al-Anam chapter 6
In Surah Al-Nahl Chapter 16 verse 115
“Forbidden for you for food are dead meat, blood, flesh of swine and that on
which had been invoked the name of other than Allah.
will not purify with grass like the Hindus, but by means of sword they will
fight the evil-doers.
will be called Musalmaan.
will be a meat-eating nation.
permits humans to eat herbivorous animals in Surah Maidah chapter 5 verse no. 1
and in Surah Mu’minoon chapter 23 verse 21
Bhavishya Purana Part – III, khand 1, Adhyay 3, shlokas 21-23
persecution are in seven sacred cities of Kashi etc. India is inhabited by
Rakshas, Shabar, Bhil and other foolish people. In the land of ‘Malechhas’ the
followers of the ‘Malechah dharma’ (Islam) are wise and brave people. All good
qualities are found in Musalmaans and all sorts of vices have accumulated in the
land of the Aryas. Islam will rule in India and its island. Having known these
facts O Meeni, glorify the name of the Lord”.
“It is He who
hath sent His messenger with guidance and
the Religion of
Truth, to proclaim it over all religion,
pagans may detest (it).
Qur’an 9:33 and 61:9)
and a similar
verse ends with:
enough is Allah for a witness”.(Al
c. Prophet Muhammad prophesied in Atharva Veda
In the 20th
book of Atharva Veda Hymn-127, some Suktas (chapters) are known as ‘kuntap sukt’.
‘Kuntap’ means ‘the consumer of misery and troubles', thus meaning ‘the message
of peace and safety’. This translated in Arabic means Islam.
means hidden glands in the abdomen. These mantras are probably called so because
their true meaning was hidden and was to be revealed in future. Its hidden
meaning is also connected with the naval or the middle point of the earth.
Makkah is called the ‘ummul Qura’, or ‘the mother of the towns’ or ‘the naval of
the earth’ in many revealed books. It was the first house of worship of the One
God where Almighty God gave spiritual nourishment to the world. The Glorious
“The first House
(of worship) appointed for men
was that at
Bakka (Makkah) full of blessing
and of guidance
for all kinds of beings.”
like M. Bloom Field, Prof Ralph Griffith, Pandit Rajaram, Pandit Khem Karan and
others have translated these kuntap suktas. The main points mentioned in the
kuntap suktas in Atharvaved book XX Hymn 127 verses 1-14 are:
narashansah or the praised one (Mohammad).
He is Kaurama
the prince of peace or the emigrant, who is safe even amongst a host of 60,090
He is a
camel-riding Rishi, whose chariot touches the heaven.
He is Mamah
‘Oh! Ye who glorifies.’
We glorify or
praise the great hero with a song of praise and a prayer. Please accept this
praise so that evil may not befall us.
(i) The Sanskrit
word ‘Narashansah’ means ‘the praised one’ which is the literal translation of
the Arabic word Muhammad (pbuh).
word ‘Kaurama’ means ‘one who spreads and promotes peace’. The holy Prophet was
the ‘prince of peace’ and he preached equality of human kind and universal
brotherhood. ‘Kaurama’ also means ‘an emigrant’. The Prophet migrated from
Makkah to Madeenah and was thus an emigrant.
(ii) He will be
protected from 60,090 enemies, which was the population of Makkah. The prophet
would ride a camel. This clearly indicates that, it cannot be an Indian Rishi
since it is forbidden for a Brahman to ride a camel. According to Manu Smriti
chapter 11 verse 202 sacred books of the east, volume 25, Laws of Manu pg. 472
“A Brahman is prohibited from riding a camel or an ass and to bathe naked. He
should purify himself by suppressing his breath”.
mantra gave the Rishi name as Mamah. No Rishi in India or any other prophet had
this name. ‘Mamah’ is derived from ‘Mah’ which means to esteem highly, or to
revere, and to exalt. Some Sanskrit books give the prophet’s name as ‘Mahamad’
but this word according to Sanskrit grammer can also be used in the bad sense.
It is incorrect to apply grammar to an Arabic word. Actually Mamah has the same
meaning and somewhat similar pronunciation as the word Muhammad (pbuh).
Battle of the Allies described in the Vedas.
It is mentioned
is Atharvaveda Book XX hymn 21, verse 6:
“O Lord of the truthful! These
drinks, these feats of bravery and the inspiring
songs gladdened thee in the field of battle. When thou renderst vanquished
without fight the ten thousand opponents of the praying one, the adoring one.”
(i) This Prophecy of the Veda describes the
well-known battle of Ahzab or the battle of the Allies during the time of
Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh). The Prophet was victorious without an actual conflict,
which is mentioned in the Qur’an:
believers saw the confederate forces they said:
This is what
Allah and his Messenger had promised us,
His Messenger told us what was true.
And it only
added to their faith and their zeal in obedience.
Sanskrit word ‘karo’ in the Mantra means the ‘Praising one’ which when
translated into Arabic means Ahmed, the second name of Prophet(pbuh) Muhammad (pbuh).
(iii) The 10,000
opponents mentioned in the mantra were the enemies of the prophet and the
Muslims were only 3000 in number.
(iv) The last
words of the Mantra ‘aprati ni bashayah’ means the defeat was given to the
enemies without an actual fight.
enemies defeat in the conquest of Makkah.
It is mentioned
in Atharva Veda book 20 Hymn 21 verse no. 7.
“You have O
Indira overthrown 20 kings and 60,099 men with an outstripping chariot wheel who
came to fight the praised one or far famed (Muhammad) Orphan”
population of Makkah at the time of Prophet’s advent was nearly 60,000.
were several clans in Makkah each having its own chief. Totally there were about
20 chiefs to rule the population of Makkah.
‘Abandhu’ meaning a ‘helpless man’ who was far famed and ‘Praised one’ [Muhammad
(pbuh)] overcame his enemies with the help of God.
A similar prophecy is also found in Rigveda Book
I, Hymn 53 verse 9.
(i) The Sanskrit
word used is ‘Sushrama’ which means praiseworthy or well praised which in Arabic
means Muhammad (pbuh).
(ii) There were several clans in Makkah each having its own chief. Totally there were about 20 chief to rule the population of Makkah.
Muhammad (pbuh) did not drink his mother’s milk.
It is mentioned
Samveda Agni, mantra 64 (S.V. m-64)
Book 1 chapter 2, decade 2, verse 2 (S.V. 1:2:2:2)
The habits of
this child are very strange. He does not go to his mother for milk, his mother
does not feed him milk and yet as soon as he is born he takes up the noble
assignment of prophet hood”.
Muhammad (pbuh) prophesied by name as Ahmed
was an orphan and thus none of the wet nurses were interested in taking care of
him. On the other hand, no mother was willing to give her child to Lady Halima
because she did not seem to have enough milk. Thus Lady Halima took Muhammad (pbuh)
home for breast-feeding, and as soon as she began to breast-feed Muhammad (pbuh),
there was a surge of milk in her breasts.
Yajurveda chapter 31 verse 18
Book 8 hymn 6 verse 10
Atharvaveda Book 8 chapter 5 verse 16
(iv) Atharvaveda Book 20 chapter 126 verse 14
has prophesied by name as Ahmed also in Samveda Uttararchik mantra 1500 Part II
Book VII chapter 1 section 5 verse 1 and Samved Indra chapter 2 mantra 152
Book 2 chapter 2 decade 1 verse 8)
from his Lord the knowledge of eternal law. I received light from him just as
from the sun”. The Prophecy confirms –
(i) The name of
the Prophet as Ahmed. Since Ahmed is an Arabic name, many translators
misunderstood it to be Ahm at hi and translated the mantra as I alone
have acquired the real wisdom of my father.
(ii) The Prophet
was given eternal law i.e. Shari’ah.
(iii) The Rishi
was enlightened by the Shari’ah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The Glorious Qur’an says in
“We have not
sent thee but as a universal
(Messenger) to men, giving them glad tidings
and warning them
(against sin), but most men
(Al Qur’an 34:28)
Muhammad (Pbuh) Prophesized as Narashangsa.
‘Narashangsa’ is the combination of ‘Nar’ and ‘Aashangsa’ – Nar – means man and
‘Aashangsa’ means ‘praised’, therefore ‘Narashangsa’ means ‘the praised man’.
(pbuh) is mentioned as ‘Narashangsa’ in the Hindu scriptures in several places
Rigveda Book 1
hymn 18 verse 9
Rigveda Book 1
hymn 106 verse 4
Rigveda Book 1
hymn 142 verse 3
Rigveda Book 2
hymn 3 verse 2
Rigveda Book 3 hymn 29 verse 11
Rigveda Book 5
hymn 5 verse 2
Rigveda Book 7
hymn 2 verse 2
10 hymn 64 verse 3
10 hymn 182 verse 2
Uttararchik mantra 1349
chapter 29 verse 27
1 chapter 6 verse 4
1 chapter 7 verse 4
chapter 20 verse 37
chapter 20 verse 57
chapter 21 verse 31
chapter 21 verse 55
chapter 28 verse 2
chapter 28 verse 19
chapter 28 verse 42
j. Kalki Avatar
It is mentioned
in Bhagvata Purana Khand 12 Adhyay 2 shlokas 18-20:
“It is in the
house of Vishnuyash, the noble soul Brahmana chief of the village called
sambhala that Lord Kalki will be incarnated”.
“The Lord of the universe, endowed with eight spiritual powers and excellence was unsurpassed in splendour and glory. Riding on a fleet horse called Devadatta, he would traverse over the whole earth or the hourse; will massacre with his sword capable of subjecting the crores and crores of robbers and wicked miscreants who posed themselves as kings.”.
It is mentioned
in Bhagwat Purana Khand 1 Adhyay 3 Shloka
“Then in the
twilight of the Kali age, when kings will be as good as robbers, this protector
of the world will be born of Vishnuyasa under the name Kalki“. The following description
of the Kalki Avatar (i.e. the final Avatar) is given in the verses Kalki Purana
chapter 2 verses 4, 5, 7, 11 & 15.
Mother’s name Sumati
The name of his
mother will be Sumati (K.P.2: 4 & 11), which means gentle and thoughtful,
Prophet Muhammad’s mother’s name was Aaminah, which means peaceful and gentle.
2. Father’s name Vishnuyash i.e.
name will be ‘Vishnuyash’ which means ‘worshipper of Vishnu’ i.e. ‘worshipper of
God’. Muhammad’s father’s name was Abdullah which means ‘obedient worshipper of
Allah i.e. God’.
3.Born in Sambhala i.e. Makkah
He will be born
in a village called ‘Sambhala’ which means house of peace and security. Makkah
is known as Darul Aman, which means house of peace and security.
4. Born in house of Chief Priest.
He will be born
in the house of chief of the village Sambhala. Muhammad (pbuh) was born in the
house of the chief of the Kaaba.
5. Born on the 12th day
of Madhav i.e. Rabi-ul-Awwal.
It is prophesied
that Kalki Avtar will be born on the 12th day of the bright (first)
half of the month of Madhav. It is a historical fact Muhammad (pbuh) was born on
the 12th day of the bright half of the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal.
He will be the Antim or final
He has been
described as the ‘Antim’ i.e. ‘the last and final’ of all the Avatars. The
Qur’an also mentions:
Muhammad is not the Father of
any of your men,
(he is) the Messenger of
And the seal of the Prophets,
And Allah has
full knowledge ff all things
Thus the Qur’an
states that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is the Seal, i.e. last and final Prophet of
7. Will receive knowledge on the
mountain from the Lord and then go towards North and come back.
will go to the mountains and receive knowledge from Parsuram, then go towards
the north and come back. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) did go to Jable-Noor i.e. the
Mountain of Light, where he received the first Revelation from Archangel
Gabriel. Later he went north to Madeenah and later made a victorious return to
He will have the most graceful personality.
will have unparalleled grace. The Glorious Qur’an
mentions in Surah Al-Qalam chapter 68 verse 4:
"And thou (standest)
on an exalted standard of character." (Al Qur'an 68:4)
Endowed with eight special qualities
will be endowed with eight special qualities. These qualities are wisdom,
respectable lineage, self-control, revealed knowledge, valour, measured speech,
utmost charity and gratitude. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had all these eight
– He was very wise. It is no wonder that several people approached him for
guidance, even before he claimed to be a prophet.
Respectable lineage – He belonged to the noble tribe of Quraysh who were the
caretakers of the sacred Kaaba.
Self-control – He was the best example of self-control. From history, we
learn that his enemies on many occasions tried to instigate him. However, he was
always patient and responded wisely.
knowledge – Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) received the last and final revelation
of God, which is the Glorious Qur’an through Archangel Gabriel.
e) Valour –
Muhammad (pbuh) possessed great physical strength and courage. He took active
part in the battles against his enemies and most of such battles were fought in
self-defence against aggression by the other party.
speech – Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) spoke with emphasis and deliberation that
people could not forget what he said. In his intercourse with others he would
sit silent among his companions for long time but when he spoke his speech was
eloquent and full of meaning and advise.
charity – Muhammad (pbuh) was very charitable and never disappointed anyone
who asked for help even in situations when he himself was in financial
difficulties. Many poor people lived only on his generosity.
Gratefulness – Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was known for his gratefulness He
showed immense gratitude to the Ansaars i.e. the helpers from the city of
of the World.
The Kalki Avatar
will be the saviour of the world i.e. he will guide and teach the world. Prophet
Muhammad (pbuh) did not only guide and save the Arabs but the whole humankind.
The Qur’an mentions:
We have not sent thee
but as a
universal Messengerto men,
them glad tidings,
and warning them
but most men understand not.
Shiva will present a steed to
It is prophesied
that Shiva will present an extraordinary steed to the Kalki Avatar. Muhammad (pbuh)
received a steed from Almighty God, which was known as ‘Buraq’ and whose speed
He will ride a horse and carry a sword.
(pbuh) received a heavenly steed from Almighty God called ‘Buraq’ on which he
made his heavenly journey known as ‘Miraaj’ or the ‘Ascension to the heavens’.
also learn from the history of the Prophet that he himself took part in battles,
most of which were fought in self-defence, and on many such occasions, he rode a
horse and carried a sword in his hand.
He will subdue the wicked
It is mentioned
that Kalki Avatar will subdue the wicked. It was prophet Muhammad (pbuh) who
purified (transformed) bandits and miscreants and established them on the path
of truth. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) came at a time, which was known as ‘Yaumul-Jahiliyah’,
which means the “age or era of ignorance”. People indulged in various types of
vices. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) brought them from darkness to light.
14. He will
overpower the Devil with four companions
It is prophesied
that Kalki Avatar, with four of his companions, will disarm Kali i.e. the devil.
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), with his four most trusted companions
fought against the mischief and the evil of the devil. These four companions
were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them all). These
four companions later became the first four Khalifas and spread the religion of
Islam. In Islamic parlance these four are referred to as ‘the rightly guided
He will be assisted by angels.
The Kalki Avatar
will be assisted by angels in the battlefield. In the battle of Badr, Prophet
Muhammad (pbuh) was assisted by angels who descended from the heavens.
also mentioned in the Qur’an in:
Ale- Imran chapter 3 verse 123-125
Surah Al- Anfal
chapter 8 verses 8 & 9
THE CONCEPT OF LIFE AFTER DEATH IN HINDUISM AND IN ISLAM
AFTER DEATH IN HINDUISM>:
1. Concept of rebirth in Hinduism –Reincarnation or Transmigration of the Souls
the Hindus believe in the cycle of birth, death and rebirth, which is called ‘Samsara'. 'Samsara'
or the doctrine of rebirth is also known as the theory of reincarnation or of
transmigration of the soul. This doctrine is considered to be a basic tenet of
Hinduism. According to doctrine of rebirth, differences between individuals,
even at the time of their birth are due to their past karma i.e. actions done in
the past birth. For example if one child is born healthy while another is
handicapped or blind, the differences are attributed to their deeds in their
previous lives. Those who believe in this theory reason that since all actions
may not bear fruit in this life, there has to be another life for facing or
reaping the consequences of one’s actions.
It is mentioned in the Bhagvad Gita
person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new
material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones."
(Bhagvad Gita 2:22)
The Doctrine of Re-birth is also described in
“As a Caterpillar which has wriggled to the top of a blade
of grass draws itself over to a new blade, so does the soul, after it has put
aside its body draw
itself over to a new existence."
Karma – The law of Cause and Effect
means act, deed, action or activity and refers not only to action undertaken by
the body but also to those undertaken by the mind. Karma is actually action and
reaction or the law of cause and effect. It is explained by the saying, “As we
sow, so shall we reap”. A farmer cannot sow wheat and expect rice to grow.
Similarly, every good thought, word or deed begets a similar reaction which
affects our next life and every unkind thought, harsh word and evil deed comes
back to harm us in this life or in the next life.
Dharma – Righteous Duties:
means what is right or righteous duties. This includes what is right for the
individual, family, the class or caste and also for the universe itself. In
order to achieve good karma, life should be lived according to Dharma, otherwise
it will result in bad karma. Dharma affects both, the present life and the
future as well.
– Liberation from the Cycle of Rebirth:
means liberation from the cycle of rebirth or of
The ultimate aim of every Hindu is that one day the cycle of rebirth will be
over and he will not have to be reborn again. This can only happen if there is
no karma to cause an individual to be reborn i.e. it looses its good and bad
Rebirth is not mentioned in the Vedas:
important point worth noting is that the doctrine of rebirth is not postulated,
propounded nor even mentioned anywhere in what are considered to be the most
authentic Hindu scriptures i.e. the Vedas. The Vedas make no mention of the
entire concept of transmigration of souls.
Punarjanam does not mean cycle of rebirth but means Life after Death:
Common word used for the doctrine of rebirth is ‘Punarjanam’. In Sanskrit
‘Punar’ or ‘Puna’, means, ’next time' or ‘again’ and ‘Janam’ means ‘life’.
Therefore ‘Punarjanam’ means ‘next life’ or ‘the life hereafter’. It does not
mean coming to life on earth again and again as a living creature.
reads many of the references to Punarjanam in Hindu Scriptures besides the
Vedas, keeping the life in the hereafter in mind, one gets the concept of the
next life but not of rebirths or of life again and again. This is true for
several quotations of the Bhagvad Gita and Upanishad which speak of Punarjanam.
concept of repeated births or of cycle of rebirth was developed after the Vedic
period. This doctrine was included by humans in subsequent Hindu scriptures
including the Upanishad, Bhagvad Gita and the Puranas in a conscious attempt to
rationalize and explain the differences between different individuals at birth
and the different circumstances in which people find themselves in, with the
concept that Almighty God is not unjust. So to say that since God is not unjust
the inequalities and differences between people are due to their deeds in their
a rational answer to this which we shall discuss later InshaAllah.
after Death in the Vedas:
reference to life after death in the Vedas. It is mentioned in
Rigved Book no. 10, Hymn no. 16 verse no. 4
unborn portion, burn that, AGNI, with thy heat; let thy flame, thy splendour,
consume it; with those glorious members which thou hast given him, JATAVEDAS,
bear him to the world (of the virtuous)”
Sanskrit word Sukritam u Lokam the word of the virtuous or region of the pious, referring to the
hereafter. The next verse i.e.
Rigveda Book 10 hymn 16 verse 5 says:
Putting on (Celestial) life, let the remains (of bodily like) depart: let him,
JATAVEDAS be associated with a body.”
verse too refers to a second life i.e. life after death.
Paradise – Swarga in the Vedas
Swarg i.e. Paradise,is described in several places in the Vedas including
Atharva Veda Book 4 hymn 34 verse 6 (Devichand)
these streams of butter, with their banks of honey, flowing with distilled
water, and milk and curds and water reach thee in domestic life enhancing thy
pleasure. May thou acquire completely these things strengthening the soul in
diverse ways.” (Atharva Veda 4:34:6-Devi Chand)
Atharva Veda Book 4 hymn 34 verse 6 (Ved Prakash)
pools of clarified butter, stocks of sweet honey, and having exhilarating drinks
for water, full of milk and curds, may all these streams flow to us in the world
of happiness swelling sweetly. May our lakes full of lotuses be situated near
Veda 4:34:6- Veda Prakash)
It is mentioned in Atharvaveda
of physical bodies, pure, cleansed with the wind, brilliant, they go to a
brilliant world. The fire does not cause burning in their male organ. In the
world of happiness they get plenty of women.
(Atharva Veda 4:34:2)
It is mentioned in Atharvaveda
realised ones, first of all, take the vital breath under their control from the
limbs in which it has been circulating. Go to heaven stay firm with all the
parts of your body. Attain the world of light and emancipation, following the
path of the enlightened ones (your predecessors)”.
(Atharva Veda 2:34:5)
It is mentioned in Atharavaveda
of you, start to accomplish it, make determined effort to accomplish it. Those
having unflinching faith attain this abode of happiness. Whatever ripe offerings
you have made in fire of sacrifice, may both, the husband and wife, stand united
to guard them with care.
(Atharva Veda 6:122:5)
It is mentioned in the Rigveda
the loud-sounding clouds, these divines say to you, since you are indeed subject
to death, let your progeny propitiate your revered cosmic forces with oblations,
then alone you shall rejoice (with me) in heaven”
9.Hell – ‘Nark’ in the Vedas
is also described in the Vedas and the Sanskrit word used is
It is also mentioned in Rigveda
bounteous fire divine, consume them with his fiercely glowing sharp jaws like
flames, who disregard the commandments and steadfast laws of most venerable and
AFTER DEATH IN ISLAM
in this world and then be resurrected in the Hereafter
mentioned in the Qur’an:
ye reject the faith in Allah?
that ye were without life,
gave you life; Then will He cause you to die,
He again bring you to life; And again to Him will ye return.
states that a human being comes into this world only once, and after he dies, he
is again resurrected on the day of judgement. Depending on his deeds he will
either dwell in heaven i.e. Paradise or he will dwell in hell.
This Life is a test for the hereafter
It is mentioned in the
He who created Death
that He may try which
of you is best in deed;
And He is the exalted
in Might, off-Forgiving
This life that we lead in
this world is a test for the hereafter. If we follow the commandments of the
Almighty Creator and we pass the test, we shall enter Paradise i.e., which is Eternal
Bliss. If we do not follow the commandments of our creator and fail the test
then we shall be put into hell.
Recompense on the Day of Judgement:
It is mentioned in the
soul shall have a test of death.
on the Day of Judgment shall
paid your full recompense.
who is saved far from the fire and admitted to the Garden
attained the object (of life).
life of this world is but goods and chattels of deception.
– Al Jannah
Jannah i.e. paradise is a place of perpetual bliss. In Arabic,
‘jannat’ literally means ‘the Garden’. The Qur’an describes paradise in great
detail, such as gardens underneath which rivers run. It contains rivers of milk
unchanging in flavour and rivers of purified honey. In paradise is fruit of
every kind. No fatigue shall be felt in paradise neither shall there be any idle
talk. There shall be no cause of sin, difficulty, anxiety, trouble or hardship.
Paradise shall thus have peace and bliss.
Paradise is described in several verses of the Qur’an including
Surah Ale Imran
Chapter 3 verse 15
Surah Ale Imran
Chapter 3 verse 198
Chapter 4 verse 57
Surah Al Maidah
Chapter 5 verse 119
Chapter 9 verse 72
Chapter 15 verses 45-48
Chapter 35 verses 33-35
Chapter 18 verse 31
Chapter 36 verses 55-58
Chapter 37 verses 41-49
Chapter 43 verses 68-73
Chapter 44 verses 51-57
Chapter 47 verse 15
Chapter 52 verses 17-24
Chapter 55 verses 46-77
Chapter 56 verses 11-38
Chapter 56 verses 11-38
Hell is a
place of torment where evil-doers undergo the most terrible pain and suffering
caused by being burnt by hellfire, a fire whose fuel is men and stones. Further,
the Qur’an states that as many times as their skins are burnt, the residents of
hell shall be given fresh skin so that they feel the pain. Hell is described in
several verses of the Qur’an including
Chapter 2 Verse 24
Chapter 4 Verse 56
Chapter 14 Verses 16,17
Chapter 22 Verses 19-22
Chapter 35 Verses 36,37
Concepts for differences in different Individuals
In Hinduism, the differences in two individuals at birth is explained by
stating past karma i.e. actions of the previous life, as the cause of the
differences. There is no scientific or logical proof or evidence of the cycle of
Islam explain these differences? The Islamic explanation for these differences
in different individual is given in Surah Mulk:
created death and life,
may try which of you is best in Deed;
And He is
the Exalted in Might; oft-forgiving.
that we live is the test for the hereafter.
CONCEPT OF FATE & DESTINY IN HINDUISM & IN ISLAM
of Destiny – Qadr in Islam
the concept of Destiny. Certain aspects of human life are predestined by our
Creator Almighty Allah. For example, where and when will a person be born, the
surroundings and conditions in which he will be born, how long will he live and
where and when he will die. These are predetermined by the Creator.
of Destiny in Hinduism
of Destiny in Hinduism is somewhat similar to that of Islam.
Conditions are a test
several verses in the Qur’an which clearly specify that our Creator Almighty
Allah tests us in several different ways
mentioned in the Qur’an:
a. “Or do ye
think that ye shall enter the Garden (of Bliss)
such (trials) as came to those who passed away before
you? they encountered suffering and adversity,
and were shaken in spirit that even
Messenger and those of faith who were with him cried:
(will come) the help of Allah?”
Verily, the help Of Allah is (always) near!
b. “Do men think that they will be
on saying, “we believe”,
they will not be tested?”
c. “Every soul
shall have a taste of death:
And we test
you by evil and by good by way of trial -
to Us must
d. “Be sure we
shall test you with something of fear and hunger,
some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil),
glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.”
e. "And know ye that your possessions
progeny, are but a trial
and that it
is Allah with whom lies
Your highest reward."
will be based on the facility provided
human being undergoes a test in this world. The test an individual undergoes
differs from person to person, depending upon the comforts and the conditions in
which Allah puts an individual. He passes His judgement accordingly. For example
if a teacher sets a difficult examination paper, the correction is usually
lenient. On the other hand if the teacher sets an easy examination paper, the
correction is strict.
some human beings are born in rich families while some others are born in poor
families. Islam instructs every rich Muslim, who has a saving of more than the
Nisaab level, i.e. 85 gms of Gold, to give 2.5% of his excess wealth in
obligatory charity every lunar year. This called the system of ‘Zakaah’ in
Islam. Some rich persons may be giving the minimum required charity; some may be
giving less than what is required while others may not be giving at all. Thus
for a rich man, he may get full marks in Zakat i.e. charity, some may get less,
some may get nil. On the other hand, a poor person who has a saving of less than
85 gms of gold gets full marks in Zakat, because he does not have to give this
Any normal human being would like to be rich and not poor.
Some may appreciate the rich people and sympathise with the poor, not knowing
that the same wealth may take that person to hell if he does not give charity
and due to this wealth falls prey to temptations of character, while poverty for
the poor man may be an easy path to paradise if he follows the other
commandments of Almighty God. The converse may be true. A wealthy man may earn
paradise by his philanthropy and humility, while a poor person who covets
luxuries and hence resorts to unfair means to get them may be in trouble on the
Day of Judgement.
born with congenital defects are a test for their parents
children are born healthy while others are born handicapped or with a congenital
defect. Irrespective of whether a child is born healthy or handicap, in Islam he
is Masoom i.e. sinless. There is no question of the child being handicapped due
to a carried forward baggage of past sins from ‘a previous life’. Such a belief
will not inculcate a charitable attitude in others. Others might say that the
child deserves his birth defects or the handicap since it is a result of his
states that such handicaps are a type of test for the parent whether they are
yet thankful towards their Creator or not. Do they retain their patience? Do
they continue to persevere?
a famous saying that a person was sad because he had no shoes to wear until he
saw a person who had no feet.
mentioned in the Qur’an
ye that your possessions
progeny, are but a trial
it is Allah with whom lies
may be testing the parents whether they yet are thankful to their Creator or
not. May be the parents are righteous and pious and deserve Jannah. If Allah
wants to give them a higher place in Jannah, He will test them further, e.g. by
giving a handicap child. Yet if they are thankful to their Creator, they will
deserve a higher reward i.e. the Jannatul Firdous.
a general rule that the more difficult the test, higher the reward. To pass
graduation in Arts and Commerce is relatively easy and if you pass you are
called as a graduate without any special title but if you graduate in the field
of medicine which is comparatively a much more difficult examination, besides
becoming a graduate you are also called as a doctor and the title Dr. is put in
front of your name.
same way Allah (swt) tests, different people in different ways, some with
health, some with disease, some with wealth, some with poverty, some with more
intelligence, some with less, and depending upon the facility He gives the
individual, He tests accordingly.
main reason for the differences in the human being is that this life is a test
for the hereafter. Life after death is mentioned in the Qur’an as well as the
Individual differences are not due to transmigration of souls or ‘Samsara’,
These beliefs were added on in subsequent scriptures like the Upanishad, Bhagvad
Gita and the Puranas. The repetitive cycle of birth and death, birth and death
was unknown and unheard of in the Vedic period.
THE CONCEPT OF WORSHIP IN HINDUISM AND IN ISLAM
PILLARS OF ISLAM
a. It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari
“Narrated Ibn Umar (r.a)
That Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) said: Islam is based on (the following) five
To testify that none
has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad (pbuh) is the
slave and messenger of Allah.
To pay Zakaat
To perform Hajj (i.e.
Pilgrimage to Makkah)
To Observe Saum (i.e. fast) during the month of
Bukhari Vol. 1, Book of Imaan, Chapter 1, Hadith 8)
b. TESTIMONY OF FAITH:
The First Pillar of Islam i.e. to declare,
proclaim, testify and to bear witness that no entity or deity is worthy of
worship, devotion, obedience and submission except Allah (swt) and to bear
witness that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is the last and final Messenger of Allah.
This pillar of faith has already been discussed in the Pillar of Imaan.
a. The second Pillar of Islam is Salaah.
Salaah is usually translated in English as
prayer. To pray means to beseech or to ask for help. In Salaah we Muslims do not
merely ask for help from Almighty Allah but we also praise Him and receive
guidance from Him. I personally prefer describing it as programming towards
righteousness. To elaborate, consider that during salaah, after Surah Fatiha, an
Imaam may recite
ye who believe!
Intoxicants and gambling,
(Dedication of) Stones,
And (divination by) arrows,
Are an abomination
Of Satan’s handiwork;
Eschew such (abomination),
That you may prosper.
Allah (swt) guides us, through this verse of the
Qur’an, which is recited by the Imaam during salaah, that we should not imbibe
intoxicants, we should not indulge in gambling, idol worship or fortune telling.
All these are Satan’s handiwork and we should abstain from these if we wish to
The English word ‘prayer’ does not denote the
complete meaning of Salaah in its full and true sense.
b. Prayer restrains you from shameful and
It is mentioned in the Qur’an:
Recite what is sent
Of the book by inspiration
To thee, and establish
Regular Prayer: for prayer
Restrains from shameful
And unjust deeds;
And remembrance of Allah
Is the greatest (thing of life)
Without doubt. And Allah knows
The (deeds) that ye do.
c. Five times Salaah for healthy souls.
For a healthy body, human require about three
meals. In a similar manner for a healthy soul, it is required that we offer
Salaah a minimum of five times every day.
Our Creator Allah (swt) has prescribed salaah for
human beings for a minimum of five times a day in Surah Isra Chapter 17 Verse 78
and in Surah Taha Chapter 20 Verse 130.
d. The Prostration is the most important
part of Salaah:
The most important part of Salaah is the ‘Sujud’
i. It is mentioned in the
“O Mary! Worship thy lord devoutly,
Prostrate thyself, and bow down (in prayers)
With those who bow down.” (Al Qur’an 3:43)
ii. O ye who believe:
Bow down, prostrate yourselves,
And adore your Lord; and do good;
That ye may prosper. (Al
One of the types of Prayers in Hinduism is 'Shashtang'
There are various different types of prayers and
modes of worship in Hinduism. One of the types is ‘shashtang’. The word
‘shashtang’ is made up of ‘Sa’ and ‘Asht’ which means eight and ‘Ang’ which
means ‘parts of the body’. Thus, shastang is a mode of worship touching eight
parts of the body. The best way a person can do this is like Muslims who
prostrate in their Salaah touching their forehead, nose, two hands, two knees,
and two feet.
Idol Worship is prohibited in Hinduism:
i. Idol worship, which is very common amongst
the Hindus, is prohibited in Hinduism. It is mentioned in Bhagavad Gita Chapter
7 verse 20:
“Those whose intelligence has been stolen by
material desires they worship demigods i.e. idols.(Bhagavad
ii. It is mentioned in Svetashvatara Upanishad
chapter 4 verse 19 As well as in Yajurved Chapter 32 Verse 3:
“There is no image of Him”
(Svetashvatara Upanishad 4:19, Yajurved 32:3)
It is also mentioned in
Yajurveda Chapter 40 verse 9
“They enter darkness those who worship natural
things (for e.g. air, water, fire, etc.). They sink deeper in darkness those who
worship sambhuti i.e. created things (for e.g. table, chair, car, idol etc.)" (Yajurved 40:9)
a. ZAKAAT MEANS PURIFICATION AND GROWTH
Zakaat is the third pillar of Islam, which means
purification and growth.
b. 2.5% IN CHARITY
Every rich Muslim who has a saving which is more
than the minimum level called ‘Nisaab’ which is 85 gms of gold, should give 2.5%
of his excess wealth in charity every lunar year.
c. IF ALL RICH GIVE ZAKAT NO ONE WILL DIE OF HUNGER
If every rich human being gives Zakaat, then
poverty will be eradicated from this world. There will not be a single human
being who will die of hunger.
d. ZAKAT ENSURES THAT WEALTH DOES NOT CIRCULATE ONLY AMONGST THE
One of the reasons for Zakaat is mentioned in
“In order that the wealth may not (merely)
circulate amongst the wealthy amongst you.”(Al
CHARITY IN HINDUISM:
Charity is also prescribed in Hinduism.
In Rigved Bk. 10 hymn 117
“Let the rich satisfy the poor implorer, and bend
his eyes upon a longer pathway. Richest come now to one, now to another, and
like the wheels of cars are ever rolling.” (Translation by Ralph Griffith)
“If it is expected of every rich man to satisfy
the poor implorer; let the rich person have a distant vision (for a rich of
today may not remain rich tomorrow). Remember that riches revolve from one man
to another, as revolve the wheels of a chariot.”
(Translation by Satyaprakash Sarasvati & Satyakam
Vidhya Lankar) (Rigved 10:117:5)
Charity has been prescribed
in Bhagvad Gita in several places including Chapter 17 verse 20 and chapter 16 verse 1.
4. 'SAUM' – FASTING:
'Saum' or 'fasting' is the fourth pillar of Islam. Every healthy adult Muslim is supposed to abstain
from eating and drinking, from dawn to sunset, in the complete lunar month of
fasting prescribed for self-restraint
The reason for fasting has been mentioned in the
O ye who believe!
Fasting is prescribed to you
As it was prescribed
To those before you,
That ye may (learn)
Today the psychologists inform us that if a
person can control his hunger, it is very likely that he will be able to control
most of his desires.
c. Fasting discourages alcoholism, smoking and other addictions
Fasting for one complete month is a good
opportunity for giving up one’s wrong habits. If a person can abstain from
drinking alcohol, from dawn to sunset, he can very well abstain from alcohol
from the cradle to the grave. If a person can abstain from smoking, from dawn to
sunset, he can very well abstain from smoking from the cradle to the grave.
d. Medical benefits
There are various medical benefits of fasting.
Fasting increases the absorption of the intestine; it also decreases the
e. Fasting in Hinduism
There are different types and methods of fasting
in Hinduism. According to
Manusmriti Chapter 6 verse 24
Fasting has been prescribed for a month for
(Manusmriti edited by Dr. R. N. Sharma)
Fasting has also been prescribed in Manusmriti chapter 4 verse 222 Manusmriti chapter 11 verse 204
5. HAJJ – PILGRIMAGE:
is the fifth pillar of Islam. Every adult Muslim who has the means to perform
Hajj i.e. pilgrimage to the holy city of Makkah should at least perform Hajj
once in his life time.
Hajj is a practical example and demonstration of
universal brotherhood. The Hajj is the largest annual gathering in the world
where about 2.5 million people from different parts of the world gather, from
U.S.A., from U.K. from Malaysia, from Indonesia, from India and other parts of
the world. All pilgrims wear two pieces of unsown cloth, preferably white, such
that you cannot differentiate whether a person is rich or poor, king or pauper.
People of all races and of all colours gather together in unity to worship the
Pilgrimage in Hinduism
There are various places of pilgrimage in
Hinduism. One of the sacred places mentioned in Rigved, Bk. 3 hymn 29 verse
“Ilayspad, which is situated at Nabha prathvi.”
‘Ila’ means God or Allah, and ‘spad’ means place,
therefore Ilaspad means place of God. Nabha means center and prathvi mean earth.
Thus this verse of the Veda prescribes pilgrimage to a place of God situated at
the center of the earth.
Sanskrit-English dictionary by M. Monier Williams
(Edition 2002) states that Ilaspad is “Name of a Tirtha” i.e. place of
Pilgrimage – however its location is not known.
ii. According to the Qur’an:
The first House (of worship)
Appointed for men
Was that at Bakka
Full of blessing and of guidance
For all kinds of beings.
‘Bacca’ is another name for Makkah and we know
today that Makkah is situated at the center of the earth.
Later after seven verses i.e. Rigved Bk. 3 hymn 29
verse 11,Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is
mentioned as ‘Narashansa’.
Thus we can conclude that
this Ilayspad, place of pilgrimage mentioned in Rigved is Makkah.
Makkah is also
mentioned as Ilaspad i.e. Allah’s holy place in
Book 1 hymn 128
CONCEPT OF JIHAD IN HINDUISM AND
JIHAD IN ISLAM AND IN HINDUISM
One of the greatest misconceptions about
Islam, not only amongst the non-Muslims but even amongst the Muslims, is that
concerning the concept of Jihad. Non-Muslims as well as Muslims think that any
war fought by any Muslim for whatever purpose, be it good or bad, is Jihad.
‘Jihad’ is an Arabic word derived from
which means to strive or to struggle. For example. if a student strives to pass
in the examination he is doing jihad.
In the Islamic context, ‘Jihad’ means to strive
against one’s own evil inclination. It also means to strive to make the society
better. It also includes the right to fight in self-defence or to fight in the
battlefield against oppression and against aggression.
Jihad does not holy war
Not only non-Muslim scholars, but even some
Muslim scholars mistranslate the word ‘Jihad’ as holy war. The Arabic word for
‘holy war’ is ‘harabum muqaddasah’ and this word is not to be found anywhere in
the Qur’an or in any hadith. The word ‘holy war’ was first used to describe the
crusades of the Christians who killed thousands of people in the name of
Christianity. Today, this term ‘holy war’ is used to falsely describe Jihad,
which merely means ‘to strive’. In an Islamic context, Jihad means ‘to strive in
the way of Allah for a righteous cause’ i.e. Jihad fi Sabilillah.
Only one of the several forms of Jihad is fighting
There are different types of Jihad i.e.,
striving. One of the types is striving is fighting in the battlefield against
oppression and tyranny.
Many critics of Islam including Arun Shourie
Al-Tawbah chapter 9 verse 5
“… Fight and slay the Mushrik/Kafir (Hindu)
wherever you find them …”
If you read the Qur’an, this verse exists but it
is quoted out of context by Arun Shourie.
The first few verses of Surah Tawbah before verse
5 speak about the peace treaty between the Muslims and Muskhriks (polytheists)
of Makkah. This peace treaty was unilaterally broken by the Mushriks of Makkah.
In verse no. 5 Allah (swt) gives them an ultimatum to put things straight in
time, or else face a declaration of war. It is for the battlefield that Allah
says “fight and slay the Mushriks (i.e. the enemies from Makkah) wherever you
find them and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every
stratagem of war”.
This verse is revealed and instructs the Muslims
to fight in the battlefield and kill the enemy wherever you find them. But
natural, any army general to boost up the morale of the soldiers and to
encourage them will say “Don’t get scared, fight and kill the enemies, wherever
you find them in the battlefield. Arun Shourie in his book ‘The World of Fatwas’
after quoting Surah Tawbah chapter 9 verse 5 jumps to verse 7. Any logical
person will realize that verse 6 has the reply to his allegation.
Surah Tawbah chapter 9 verse 6 says:
“If any amongst the Mushriks (i.e. the enemies)
ask thee for asylum, grant it to him so that
he may hear the word of Allah and then
escort him to where he can be secure”.
Today the most merciful army general may tell his
soldiers to let the enemy go
but Almighty Allah in the Qur’an says if the enemy wants peace do not just let
them go but escort them to place of security. Which army general in today’s day
and age, or rather in the whole of recorded human history is ever known to have
given such merciful instructions? Now will someone ask Mr. Arun Shourie why did
he deliberately not quote verse 6?
Jihad (i.e. striving) in the Bhagavad Gita
All the major religions encourage their followers
to strive in good works. It is mentioned in Bhagavad Gita
strive for Yoga, O Arjuna, which is the art of all work.”
(Bhagavad Gita 2:50)
Fighting prescribed in the Bhagavad Gita too
All the major religions of
the world have prescribed fighting, at sometime or the other, especially in
self-defence or for fighting against oppression.
Mahabharata is an epic and sacred Scripture of
the Hindus, which mainly deals with a fight between the cousins, the Pandavas
and the Kauravas. In the battlefield Arjun prefers not to fight and be killed
rather than having his conscience burdened with the killing of his relatives. At
this moment, Krishna advises Arjun in the battlefield and this advice is
contained in the Bhagvad Gita. There are several verses in the Bhagvad Gita
where Krishna advises Arjun to fight and kill the enemies even though they are
It is mentioned in
The Bhagvad Gita Chapter 1 verse 43-46
(43) O Krishna, maintainer of the people, I have
heard by disciplic succession that those who destroy family traditions dwell
always in hell”
(44) “Alas, how strange it is that we are
preparing ourselves to commit great sinful acts, driven by the desire to enjoy
(45) I would consider better for the sons of
Dhritarashtra to kill me unarmed and unresisting rather than fight with them.
(46) “Arjuna, having thus spoken, cast aside his
bow and arrow, and sat down on the chariot, his mind, overwhelmed with grief”.
Krishna further replies in
Bhagvad Gita Chapter 2 Verse 2, 3
2. “My dear Arjuna, how
have these impurities come upon you? They are not at all befitting a man who
knows the progressive values of life. They lead not to higher planets but to
“O son of Partha, do not
yield to this degrading impotence. It does not become you. Give up such petty
weakness of heart and arise, O chastiser of the enemy!”
When Arjuna prefers to be killed unarmed and
unresisting rather than fight and kill his cousins Kauravas, Krishna replies to
Arjun by saying how this impure thought has has come to you which prevents you
from entering heaven. Give up this degrading impotence and weakness of heart and
arise, O defeater of enemy.
Krishna further says in
Bhagvad Gita Chapter 2 verse 31-33
“Considering your specific
duty as a Kshatriya, you should know that there is no better engagement for you
than fighting on religious principles, so there is no need for hesitation”
“O Partha, happy are the
Kshatriya to whom such fighting opportunities come unsought, opening for them
the door of the heavenly planets”.
“If however, you do not
fight this religious war, then you will certainly incur sin, for neglecting your
duties, and thus loose your reputation as a fighter”.
There are hundreds of verses
in the Bhagvad Gita alone, which encourage fighting and killing, many times more
as compared to such verses in the Qur’an.
Imagine if someone were to say that the Bhagvad
Gita encourages the killing of the family members to attain paradise, without
quoting the context – such a deliberate attempt will be devilish. But within the
context if I say that for truth and justice fighting against the evil is
compulsory, even if it be against your relatives, it makes sense.
I wonder how come the critics of Islam,
especially critics amongst the Hindus, point a finger at the Qur’an when it
speaks about fighting and killing unjust enemies. The only possibility I can
think of is that they themselves have not read their sacred scriptures such as
the Bhagavad Gita, Mahabharata and the Vedas.
Critics of Islam including
Hindu critics speak against the Qur’an and the Prophet when they say that if you
are killed while doing Jihad i.e. fighting for the truth, you are promised
Besides quoting Qur’anic verses they quote Sahih
Bukhari Vol. 4, Book of Jihad Chapter no. 2 Hadith No. 46
“Allah guarantees that He will admit the Mujaahid
in His cause to Paradise if he is killed, otherwise he will return him to his
home safely with rewards and war booty”.
Bukhari Vol. 4, Book of Jihad Chapter no. 2 Hadith No. 46)
There are various similar verses in Bhagavad Gita
guaranteeing a person paradise if he is killed while fighting
Take the example of Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2 verse 37:
“O son of Kunti, either you will be killed in the
battlefield and attain the heavenly planets (paradise), or you will conquer and
enjoy the earthly kingdom, therefore get up and fight with determination”.
(Bhagavad Gita 2:37)
Similarly Rigved Book No. 1
Hymn 132 Verse 2-6 as well as many other verses of Hindu Scriptures speak about
fighting and killing.
Explain Jihad by quoting Scriptures of other Religions
Allah says in the Qur’an
Say: “O people
Of the Book!
To common terms
As between us and you:
The best way to explain a misconception of Islam
is to quote a similar message given in the Scripture of other religions.
Whenever I have spoken to Hindus who criticize the concept of Jihad in Islam,
the moment I quote similar passages from Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita, and
since they know the outline and the context of the fight in Mahabharata, they
immediately agree that if the Qur’an too speaks about a fight between truth and
falsehood then they have no objection but rather appreciate the guidance of the
SOME SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE SCRIPTURES OF
HINDUISM AND ISLAM
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN QUR’ANIC VERSES AND VEDIC VERSES
There are several verses in the Veda which have a
meaning similar to that of Qur'anic
1. Surah Fatiha
a. It is mentioned in Surah Al
Praise be to Allah
The Cherisher and Sustainer of
A similar verse is mentioned in Rigved:
Great is the Glory of the Divine Creator.”
b. Most Gracious, Most Merciful
A similar verse is mentioned in Rigved
“The Bounteous Giver."
c. Showus the straight way,
The way of those on whom
Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace,
Those whose (Portion)
Is not Wrath,
And who go not astray.
A similar verse is mentioned in Yajurved
chapter 40 verse 16 (Y.V. 40:16)
“Lead us to the good path and remove the
sin that makes us stray and wander. (Yajurved 40:16)
A similar message is given in Rigveda book
1 hymn 189 verse 1, 2 (R.V. 1:189:1, 2)
It is mentioned in
Surah Al Maun
Seest thou one
Who denies the Judgement
Then such is the (man)
Who repulses the orphan
3. And encourages not
The feeding of the
A similar verse is given in Rigved
“The man with food in store who, when the needy
comes in miserable ease begging for bread to eat, hardens his heart against him
even when of old did him service – finds not one to comfort him." (Rigved 10:117:2)
similarities between THE teachings of islam and hinduism
1. Prohibition of Alcohol
mentioned in the Qur’an in Surah Al Maidah
O Ye who believe!
Intoxicants and gambling
(Dedication of) stones,
And (divination by) arrows,
Are an abomination
Of Satan’s handiwork;
Eschew such (abomination),
That ye may prosper
mentioned in Manu Smriti
Chapter 9, verse 235:
“A priest-killer, a liquor drinker, a thief
and a violator of his guru’s marriage bed - all of these, and each separately,
should be known as men who committed major crime.”
(Manu Smriti 9:235)
Further after two verses it is mentioned in:
“These miserable men - whom no one should eat
with, no one should sacrifice for, no one should read to, and no one should
marry - must wander the earth excommunicated from all religions”.
(Manu Smriti 9:238)
A similar message is repeated in
Manu Smriti Chapter 11 verse 55:
“Killing a priest, drinking liquor, stealing,
violating a/the guru’s marriage bed, and associating with those (who commit
these acts) are called the major crimes”.
(Manu Smriti 11:55)
It is mentioned in
Chapter 11 verse 94
“For liquor is the defiling dirt excreted from
rice, and dirt is said to be evil; therefore a priest, ruler, or commoner should
not drink liquor”
(Manu Smriti 11:94)
Intoxicating drinks are prohibited in several other verses of Manu Smriti
Chapter 11 verse 151
Chapter 7 verses 47-50
Chapter 9 verse 225
Chapter 12 verse 45
Chapter 3 verse 159
Rigved Book 8 hymn 2 verse 12
vii.Rigved Book 8 hymn 21 verse 14
Prohibition of Gambling
As mentioned earlier, the Glorious Qur’an
prohibits gambling in Surah Al Maidah Chapter 5 verse 90:
Gambling is also prohibited in the Hindu Scriptures in
Rigveda Book Book 10 Hymn 34 Verse 3:
“A Gamester / gambler says,
My wife holds me aloof, my mother hates me’. The wretched man
finds none to comfort him."
It is further
advised in Rigved
“Play not with dice
: No, cultivate thy corn land. Enjoy
the gain and deem that wealth sufficient”.
It is mentioned in
Chapter 7 verse 50
“Drinking, gambling, women (not lawfully wedded
wives) and hunting, in that order, he should know to be the very worst four in
the group of (vices) born of desire” (Manu Smriti 7:50)
also prohibited in several verses of
i. Manu Smriti
ii. Manu Smriti
Chapter 7 Verse 47
Chapter 9 Verses 221-228
Chapter 9 Verse 258
Prohibition of fortune telling
Fortune telling is prohibited in the Qur'an in Surah Al Mai'dah Chapter 5 Verse 90. Similarly, fortune is also in Manusmriti;
“Those who live by announcing good luck, smooth operator, and fortune tellers...the king should punish properly, according to their strength and the offence..” (Manu Smriti 9:258 & 262)
Prohibition of alcohol
a. Vbibing in prohibited in the Quran:
“And do not eat up
your property amoung yourselves
for vanities, nor use it
as bait for the judge.
with intent that ye may
eat up wrongly and knowingly a little of (other) people's properly.”
(Al Qu'ran 2: 1888)
Bribing is similarly prohibited in Manusmiriti:
“People who take bribes, frauds, deceivers, and glambers; those who live by announcing good luck; smooth operators and fortune tellers...the king should punish them properly,according to their strength to their and the offence. (Manusmiriti Chapter 9:258 & 262)
Prohibition of pork
a. Prohibition of eating pork is mensioned in the Quran in four different places
(i) Surah Al Baqurah Chapter 2 Verse 173
(ii) Surah Al Mai'dah Chapter 5 Verse 3
(iii) Surah Al An'aam Chapter 6 Verse 145
(iv) Surah Al Nahl Chapter 16 Verse 115
"Forbidden to you (for food)
are; dead meat, blood
the flesh of swine, and that
on which hath been invoced the name of other than Allah;"
(AL Quran 5:3)
Eating of pork is similarly prohibited in Hindu Scriptures
(i) Manusmriti Chapter 5 Verse 19;
"Any twice-born person (i.e ibrahim) who khowingly eats mashroom will fail." (Manu Smriti 5: 19)
(ii) It is also mensioned in Vishusutra Chapter 5 Verse 49
"Any seller of forbidden mear (sich as pork shall be punished in the same way)
i.e. shall have one hand, or one foot lopped offf." (Vishusutra Chapter 5 Verse 49)
(iii) Badhayana Prasna Khand 12 Adhyay 5 Verse 3:
"Tame cocks and pigs must not be eaten." (Baudayana Prasna 12:5:3)
Modesty of Women
a. Human criteria for modesty of women
What constitutes modesty for women varies according to public opinion depeneding upon the society. For example in some Arab countries, a man depending upon the society. For example in some Arab countries, a man staring at a woman in considered immodest. In indian culture, as long as a man does not tauch a women, he is modest. Therefore the indian way of gretting is with folded hands. In some European countries, a man who tauches a woman to the extent that he only shake hand, is considered other extreme, in some western countries, kissing a woman is within the modesty level, while in yet other western countries, and physicall intimate act that a man and women indulge in is considered within the levels of modesty as long as both are adults and willing partners to such an act. Thus what consitutes modesty for human being aries from age to age in the same country.
A lady wearing miniskirts and shorts is considered modest in western contries but inmmodest in towns and villages in india. On the other hand, a lady wearing a saree with her belly and navel exposed is considered modest inf india but immodest in many other countries.
Lets us see what the Islamic and the Hindu scriptures have to say about the modesty of women.
b. Modesty of women according to Islam
The Qur'an first speaks about themodesty of the men and then of the women.
(i) The Qur'an says:
"Say to the believing men
that they should lower their gaze
and guard their modesty;
that will make for greater purity for them;
and Allah is well asquinted with all that they do."
(Al Qur;an 24:30)
When a man's glance falls upon an woman and unashamed thought comes in mind, he should immediately lower his gaze.
Once a Muslim was stearing ar a girl for a long and when i tell told him that what he is doing is wrong, he replied, "Quran beloved prophets (pbuh) said that the first glance is allowed and the second is prohibited, and i have not yet completed half of my first glance."
What the prophet meant (pbuh) meant was that if you unintensionally look at a woman. do not look at her again or continue looking at her to feast on her beauty. That does not meant that you look at a woman 10 minuits and then say i have not yet completed my fiest glance.
The next verse of the Qur'an speaks about the hijaab / modesty of the women.
"And say to the beliveing women
that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty;
that they should not display their beauty and ornaments bosoms
and not display their beauty except
to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands'fathers
and their sons.."
(Al Qur'an 24: 31)
(ii) Six criteria of Hijaab
There are basically six criteria of hijaab given inthe Qur'an and the authentic Hadith:
1. The first ceiterion is the extent, which differs between the man and the woman. For men, the level of 'satr'(i.e. covering) is from navel to the knee and the hands upto wrists. All the remaining criteria are the same for men and women.
2. Clothes they wear should be loose such as that they do not reveal the figure.
3. The clothes should not be transparent or translucent.
4. Clothes should not be glamorous that they attacr the attention of the opposite sex.
5. Clothes of one gender should not resembele that of the opposite gneder.
6. Clothes should not resembles any sign or symbol of unbelivers.
iii. The reason for hijaab for the women is given in Surah Al Ahzaab:
"O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing
women, that they should cast their outer garments
over their persons (when avroad):
that they should be known (as such) and not moleshted.
And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
(Al Qurnan 33:59)
ii. Example of twin sisters
Suppose there are identical twin sisters, both of them are equally beautifull. Once while walking down the streets of Mumbai, one of the twin sisters is wearing a miniskirt or shorts, while the other twin sister is wearing the islamic hijaab with the complete body covered with loose clothes except the face and hands upto the wrists. If both of them are walking and round the corner if their is a hooligan or a ruffain who is waiting for a catch, i.e. waitinf to rease a girl, which girl will he rease>? The girl wearing the islamic hijaab? It is pretty obvious that he will tease the giel wearing the miniskirt.
c. Modesty of women according to Hinduism
Hindu scriptures too advise the woman to lower her gaze and to wear a veil for the purpose of protecting her modesty.
i. It is mentioned in the Rigveda:
"Since Brahma has become a dame, cast down thine eyes and look not up. More closely set thy feet. Let noen see wha the garment veils."
ii. Wearing garments of the opposite sex is similarly forbidden by Hindu scriptures.
It is mentioned in Rigveda Book 10 Hymn 85 Verse 30:
"Unlovely is his body when it glistens with his wickend fiend, what time the husband wras about his limbs the garment of his wife."
(Rigveda Book 10:85:30)
According to the Bhavahuti in his mahavira Charitro Act ii page 71:
"WHen Rama sees Prasurama coing towards him, he directs his wife Sita, "Dear one, he is our elder, therefore turn aside and veil yourself".
(iv) Bhagvad Gita Chapter 16 Verses 16 Verses 2-3:
Modesty ...belongs to godly men endowed with divine nature".
(Bhagbad Gita 16:2-3)
Tere are various historical records of indian women wearing a veil in past centuries. In the book "Art in Gupta and post Gupta coinage:", one of the coin shows a lady havnf a veil on her head, which hangs down to the soulders and upper arms.
Even today, in various villages of India, Hindu women wear a veil covering the head and some even cover their face.
1. Definition of Polygamy
Polygamy means a syste of marrriage whereby one person has more than one spouse. Polygam can be of two types. One is polugyny where a man marries more than one's women, and the other is polyandry, where a woman marries more than one man. In islam, limited polygamy is permitted and polyandry is completely prohibited.
The Qur'an is the ony religious scripture in the world that says, "marry only one"
The glorious Qur'an is the only religious book, one the face of the earth, that contains the instruction 'marry' only one'. There is no other religious book that instruct men to habe only one wife. In nown of the religious scripture- be it the Vedas, the Ramayana, te Mahabharata, the Bhagbat Gira or the Bible, in one of these does one find a restriction on the number of wives. According to these scripture a man can marry as many women as he wishes. It may only the last 150 years or so that the Hindy presists and the Christian Church have restricted the number of wives to one.
Many Hindu religious personalities, according to the Hindi scriptures, had multiple wives. King Dashrath, the father of Rama, had more than one wife. Krisna had several wives.
In earlier times, Christian men were permitted as many wives as they wished, since the Bible puts no restriction on the number of wives.It was only few cneturies ago thar the church restricted the munber of wives to one.
Polygamy is permitted in Judaism. According to the Talmudic law, Abraham had two wives, and Solomon had hundreds of wives. The practice of polygamy continued till Rabbi Gershom ben Yehudah (960 CE to 1030 CE) issued an edict against it. The Jewish Sephardic communities living in Muslim countries continued the practice till as late as 1050, until an Act of the Chief Rabbinate of Israil extened the ban marrying more than one wife.
Hindus are more polygynus than Muslims
The report of the 'Comitte of the Status of Woman in islam', published in 1975 menions on page mumbers 66 and 67 that the percentage of polygmaous marriges between the year 1951-1961 was 5.06 among the Hindus if the indian government had made it legal for them.
Earlier, there was no restrictions even one Hindu men with respect to the munber of wives allowed. It was only 1954, when the Hindus man have to have more than one wife. At present it is the Indian aw Islam allows a man to have ore than one wife.
The Qur'an permits limited polygyny
As I mentioned earlier, the Qu'ran is te only religious book on the face of the earth that says 'marry only one<. The context of this phase i sthe following cerse form Surah An Nisa' of the glorious Qur'an
"Marry women of your choice two, three, or four;
but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them),
then (marry) only one
Before the Qur'an revealed there was no upper limit for plygyny and many men had shores of wives, some even hundreds. Islam puts and upper limit of four wices. Islam gives a man permission to marry two, theree or four women, only on the condition that he deals justly with them. In the same Chapter i.e. Surah An Nisa Verses 129 says:
You are never able to be fair and ust between women, evn if it is your ardent desire."
(Al Qur'an 4:129)
Therefore, in islam, polygyny is not a rule but an exception. Many people harbour the misoncepion thar is is compulsary for a muslim man to marry more than one wife.
Broadly, islam has five cateories of Do's and Don'ts:
(i) 'Fardh' i.e. compulsory
(ii) 'Mustahab' i.e. recomended or encouraged
(iii) 'Mubah' i.e. permissible or allowed
(iv) 'Makrooh' i.e not recommended or disouraged
(v)'Haraam' i.e. prohibitd or forbidden
Polygamy falls in the middle category of thngs that are permissible or allowed. It is not encouraged or recommended. Islam, and the muslim society, do not consider a Muslim man who has only two, three, four wives to be a better person as compaed to a Muslim man has only one wife.
Average life span of females is more than thar of males
By nature, human males and females are born in approximately the same ratio. During paediatic age(early childhood) itself, a female child has more immunity than a male child. A female child can fight germs is more than a male child. For this reason, there are more deaths among males as compared to the females, during paediatic age.
During wars, there are more men killed as compared to women. More men die due to accidents and diseases than women. The average life span of females is more than that of males, and at any given tie one finds more widows in the world rhan widowers.
6. India has a igger mal popularion than the female population due to rampat and widespread female foeticide and infanticide
India is one of the few countries, among with the other neighboring countires, in which the femal population is less than male population. The reason for this lies in the high rate of female infatiide in India, and the fact that more than one million female foeticide are stopped, then india too will hvae more feales as compared to males.
7. Worl female population is more than male population
In the USA, women outnumber men by 7.8 million. New York alone has one million more females as compared to athe number of ales, and the male populaion of New York one-third are gays i.e. sodomites. The USA as a whole has more than twenty-five million gays. This means that these homosexual men do not wish to marry women.
Great Britain has four lmillion more females as compared to males. Germany has five million more females as compared to males. Russia has nine million more females than males.
God alone knows how many muillion more females there are in the whole world today as compared to males.
Resticting each and every man to have only one wife is neither practical not desirable
Even if every man got maried to one woman, there would still be more than thirty illion females n USA alone who would not be able o get husbands(considering that America has twenty five million females in GErany and nine million females in Russia lone who wiuld not be able to find a husband.
Suppose a lady hapens to be one of the unmarried women living in USA, and as years go by she can not find a suitable man to marry, due to the fact that woemn far her are that she either marries a man who already has a wife, or she remains a pinster and becomes public property.There is no other option. ALl those who are modest will opt for the first.
In Western society, it is common for a man to have mistresses and/or multiple extra-marital affairs, in which case the other woman leads a disgraceful , unprotected and an insecure life. The smae society, however, can't accept a man having more than one wife, in which women retain their homourable, signified position in society and leads a protected life.
We mensioned that the only two options before a woman who cannot fidn a husband to either marry a married man or to remn a sprinter and become public property by having affairs with married men. Islam prefers giving women an honourable position by permitting the first option and disallowing the second are
There are several other reasons, why islam has permitted limited polygyny but the main reason for his permission is to prorect the modesty of women.(For more details, please view my videotape on "Women's Right in Islam- Modernising or Outdated?"
Polygyny in Visnussutra
Speaking of similarities, readers will be interested in knowing that Visnusutra Chapter 24 Verse 1 states:
"...A Brahman may take four wives"
(Sacred Books of the East Vol. 7, The Institures of Vishnu)
WHAT DO HINDU PERFORMERS STATE?
With the advent of British rule in India and with the introdiction of western thought, Indian religions suffered a serious decline in terms of practicing adherents. At the begining of the 19th century, several Indian reformers emerged all over India and spread their message for reforming Hindu socity of its excessive rites, rituals and orthodoxy and for ablolishing inequalities heaped on women in the name of religion.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy - Brahmo Samaaj
Raja Ram Moham Roy of Bengal was the most outstanding pioneer of these movements. He was born in 1772 and studied persian, Arabic and English. He presched universalism in tune with the sprit of Upanishads. He also presched against rituals and worked for the abolition of Sati i.e burning of a widow with the body of her dead husbands.
In 1903, he published a book in Persian, "Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin". It contains a prophet against idology and tried to establish a university religion based on the Oneness of God. He founded the 'Brahmo Samaaj but the following doctrians in the renaissance of Hinduism were common to all:
(i) No faith in Avatoors.
(ii) Denounce polytheism and idol worship.
(iii) Against caste restrictions.
(iv) Faith in the doctrine of Karma and rebirth was kept optional.
3. Justice M. G. Randade - Rrathana Samaaj
Another offshoot of the Brahmo Samaaj, the Prarthana Samaaj was founded by the Justise Ranade in Mumbai. It disapproved caste system, it encouraged and recognised widow re-merraiage and encouraged education of women.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati - Arya Samaaj
As a reaction against the influence of Brahmo Samaaj and Prathana Samaaj, Swami Dayananda Sarawati a Guruji Brahman founded the Arya Samaaj in 1875.
He fought against Hindu priesthood and wanted to bring Hinduism back to its Vedic glory. He disapproved Puranic Hinduism in favour of Vedic Hinduism. According to him, the Puranic texts had no Vedic sanction and Vedas alone were authoritative. This reformist movement tried to unify the Hindus under the umbrella of Vedic Hinduism and did not velice concept of God coming in the form fo Avataars.
The Swami said that the Vedas were not given, compiled or authorised by any one person but the ideas evolved slowluy until they were embodied in a book form and then the book becoame the authority.The Hindus have to follow the Vedas. He said that 99% of the huge Veduc literature was missing but whatever is left whould be followed. He said that the word 'Hinduism' is a misnomer and the correct tern is for the religion is 'Vedantism'. Similarly the follers should not be called 'Hindus' but should be known as 'Vedantists'.
British and Indian politicians are to be blamed fot dividing Hindus and Muslims.
a. Britishers reponsibible for diiding Hindus and Muslims
The Britishers came to out country a few centuries ago for trade and business and they gradually took over power, rulled over it and took away its wealth and resources. In order to rule sich a vast country in an unchallenged manner, ther policy was 'divine and rule'. They deliberably sowed and planted differences between the Hindus and Muslims. They also tried to change the culture and belief of local indians. From history we learn that because of the Briricers, the Hindu culture and belefs were dimisishing.
b. Surge of Hindu Reformers
Hindu Reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Justice Ranade and others tried to remove the adulteration made by the Britishers in Hindu Religion.
c. All the various facts that i have mentioned in the book about this major religion of Hinduism, have been obtained by me from the works of these reformers. Many of them may not have been aware that those beliefs of Hinsuism that they sought to highlight are also part of the belief system of the islamic faith. I am only a student of Comparative Religion. These great reformers have enlightened us on these aspects of Hinduism. In order to ensure that we do not take anybody's word for granted, I have taken care and verified all the statements and references mentioned by me in this book with authentic Hindu Scriptures.
References mainly from Vedas but also from other Hindu Scriptures
Most of the aspects that i have mentioned int this book about Hinduism have been backed with references from the Vedas. However if similar thoughts, instructions and veliefs are persent in other Hindu Scriptures. I have also quoted them, so that those Hindus who usually read the Vedas but are not aware of its contents, will come closer
Some Hindus only belive in the Vedas. Others agree that Vedas are the most authentic, yet they practically follow the other Hindu Scriptures. I have tried to address all types of Hindu Scriptures, the Vedas are considered the most authentic. No other Hindu Scripture overrule the Vedas. According to the Hindu Scholars, if there is a contradiction between the Vedas and any other Hindu Sctipture, the opionion of the Vedas will prevail.
Hindu reformers enlighten us about Hinduism
Initially, even I was prey to the British philosophy of 'divide and rule'. I thought there can not be similarities between Hinduism and Islam. It is because of my study of the works of these Hindu reformers and scholars, that I too have become aware about these aspects of Hindu faith.
f. India obtained freedon but most Indians are yet prisoners of the British Philosophy
Although our country India obtained freedom from british rule more half a ventury back, yet most of us are still prisoners of the British philosophy of 'divine and rule'.
g. Most politicians too want to 'divine and rule'
Unfortunately most of the politicians of the India have inheritedm or rather adopted, the British strategy of 'divine and rule'. In oreder to obtain votes, most of them have cteated in the past, the continue to create hatered between the Hindus and Muslims. The maximum number of communal riots that take place in any country in the world is in India.If you analyze the root cause of these riots, a majority of these are due to the instigation of politicians for their vote banks.
Politicians add fire to the fuel
All politicians may not be such, but most of them unfortunately are, irrespective of whetever they are Hindus or Muslims. People say that politicians add fire to the fuel. On most oxxasions fuel is cool and used for constructive works like running vehicles, planes, factories and the construction of the country. These politicians add fire to the fuel and destrou the country.
i. "India will be a superpower in the next 20 years"
According to many economist, business leaders and management gurus, India will be a superpower in the next 20 years. An article published in the Times of India, Mumbai, in December 2003 stated that "according to japan India would be no 1 nation in the world in the next 20 years in terms of economic development and power".
We learn from History that before the British colonial rule, India was a wealthy and powerful country - a super power in the world in those times.
j. Request to Hindus, Muslims and politicians of India to free themselves form the British Policy
It is my humble and earnest request to my dear Hindu and Muslim Brothersand sisters and the politicians of our veloved country India, that we should free ourselves from this British Policy of creating differences and divisions amoungst ourselves. Let's go back to the Scriptures and concenteate on the similaritie in order to build a stronger India. India once again would be a superpower much ahead of America and the European countries.
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